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Table 7 Medical Expenditure on Spinal Pain in TMD Patientsa

From: The relationship between spinal pain and temporomandibular joint disorders in Korea: a nationwide propensity score-matched study

 Model 1bModel 2cModel 3d
EstimatesSEPr > |t|EstimatesSEPr > |t|EstimatesSEPr > |t|
Sex (Ref = Male)
 Female0.590.100.0000.600.100.0000.540.100.000
Age (ref = 20–29)
 30–391.430.150.0001.400.150.0001.350.140.000
 40–492.280.150.0002.180.150.0001.130.220.000
 50–593.440.160.0003.330.160.0001.910.240.000
 60–694.430.190.0004.310.190.0002.130.330.000
 70 or older5.690.200.0005.460.200.0002.90.370.000
Insurance type (ref = NHI)
 Otherse   0.960.330.0030.850.330.010
Region (ref = Seoul)
 Capital area   0.060.150.6870.10.150.499
 Metropolitan   0.240.140.0840.240.140.091
 Rural areas   0.570.140.0000.580.140.000
Medical institution type (ref = general hospital)      
 Hospital   1.130.240.0001.110.240.000
 Clinic   1.970.210.0002.040.210.000
CCI (ref = 0)
 2 or less      1.220.190.000
 3–4      2.160.300.000
 5 or more      2.960.380.000
TMD grade (ref = 1)f      
 2      1.060.190.000
 3      1.570.260.000
Surgery (ref = no)
 Yes      −0.630.320.053
Hospitalization (ref = no)
 Yes      2.310.930.013
R square  0.097  0.108  0.118
  1. aLinear regression analysis on medical expenditure due to spinal pain
  2. bModel1: sex, age
  3. cModel2: Model1 + insurance type, region, medical institution type
  4. dModel3: Model2 + CCI, TMD grade, surgery, hospitalization
  5. eOthers: beneficiaries, veterans
  6. fTMD grade 1, Outpatient days due to TMD, fewer than 6; TMD grade 2, Outpatient days due to TMD, more than 6 and fewer than 12; TMD grade 3, Outpatient days due to TMD, more than 12 or use of hospitalization services
  7. TMD Temporomandibular Disorder, NHI National Health Insurance, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval