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Table 6 Combined Diagnostic Accuracy of the Studies with no Limitations on QUADAS-2 and No Incorporation Bias (N = 7)

From: Diagnostic accuracy of history taking, physical examination and imaging for phalangeal, metacarpal and carpal fractures: a systematic review update

Author(s)Diagnostic testScaphoid fractureSe %Sp %Accuracy %PPV %NPV %
Gabler (2001) [52]Repeated clinical and radiological examinationsaScaphoid82–100100100100100
Mallee (2016) [57]Radiographs bScaphoid42–7953–5953–5814–2679–94
Fusetti (2005) [51] and Platon (2011) [61]UltrasonographyScaphoid92–10042–10054–10030–10097–100
Mallee (2011) [56]MRIScaphoid678855793
Mallee (2011) [56] and Mallee (2014 [58](MD)CTcScaphoid33–6789–9679–9140–8086–93
Borel (2017) [70]CBCTScaphoid9497 9497
AuthorDiagnostic testOther carpal fractureSensitivity %Specificity %Accuracy %PPV %NPV %
Mallee (2014) [58]Repeated clinical and radiological examinationsOther carpal bones75–100    
  1. aRepeated clinical and radiological examinations after 10 and 38 days
  2. bRadiographs after 6 weeks evaluated with JPEG or DICOM files
  3. cCT-scaphoid: reformations in planes defined by the long axis of the scaphoid versus CT-wrist: reformations made in the anatomic planes of the wrist