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Table 1 Cohort characteristics according to individual and state-level variables

From: Why does the adverse effect of inappropriate MRI for LBP vary by geographic location? An exploratory analysis

VariableNumberPercentageMean (minimum, maximum)SD
Gender
 Female18,35230.9  
 Male41,00869.1  
Age (years)  39.410.8
Tenure (years)  5.87.7
Average Weekly Wage ($)  403.0187.5
Injury Severity
 Less severe47,80580.5  
 More severe11,55519.5  
Early opioid prescribing (MEA per 100 mg)
 No43,01372.5  
 Yes16,34727.53.93.8
Early lumbar MRI scan
 No41,80570.4  
 Yes17,55529.6  
Lumbar spine surgery
 No53,86990.7  
 Yes54919.3  
Industry type
 Mining10711.8  
 Construction20873.5  
 Transportation, Communications, Electric, Gas, and Sanitary Services16,30527.5  
 Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing5881.0  
 Manufacturing10,88718.3  
 Wholesale Trade45157.6  
 Retail Trade662611.2  
 Services14,78224.9  
 Public Administration19903.4  
 Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate5090.9  
Litigation status
 Yes19,18232.3  
 No40,17867.7  
Median household income ($K)  52.721,394
Wage replacement rate (%)  683
Waiting period (days)  5.31.9
Retroactive period (days)  15.77.0
State medical fee schedule
 No10,49817.7  
 Yes48,86282.3  
Initial treating provider choice
 Allowed22,51637.9  
 Not allowed36,84462.1  
Treating provider change
 Allowed828214.0  
 Allowed once14,24124.0  
 Not Allowed36,83762.1  
Annual unemployment rate  5.31.0
Annual number of state active Orthopedic surgeons per 100,000 population in 2004 and 2006  6.30.99
Annual number of state active physicians per 100,000 population  272.166.6
Number of state MRI facilities per 100,000 population in 2006  2.40.62
  1. SD Standard deviation, MRI Magnetic resonance imaging