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Table 2 Logistic regression investigating the association between cricket-related factors and joint pain on most days of the last month in former cricketers

From: Joint pain and osteoarthritis in former recreational and elite cricketers

Cricket-related factors Joint pain on most days of the last month
Hip/Groin Knee Ankle Shoulder Hand Back
Playing position
Bowlers
n = 179
Count (%) n = 15 (8%) n = 40 (22%) n = 12 (7%) n = 23 (13%) n = 18 (10%) n = 38 (21%)
Crude OR 1.7 (0.7, 3.9) 1.4 (0.8, 2.3) 1.3 (0.5, 3.2) 3.5 (1.5, 8.4) ** 0.9 (0.4, 1.7) 4.0 (2.0, 8.1) ***
Adjusted OR^ 1.5 (0.7, 3.7) 1.2 (0.7, 2.1) 1.2 (0.5, 3.1) 3.1 (1.3, 7.4) * 0.9 (0.4, 1.7) 3.6 (1.8, 7.4) ***
Wicketkeeper-batters
n = 120
Count (%) n = 8 (7%) n = 25 (21%) n = 4 (3%) n = 13 (11%) n = 19 (16%) n = 16 (13%)
Crude OR 1.3 (0.5, 3.5) 1.3 (0.7, 2.3) n ≤ 5# 2.9 (1.1, 7.5) * 1.4 (0.7, 2.8) 2.3 (1.0, 5.1) *
Adjusted OR^ 1.3 (0.5, 3.5) 1.2 (0.7, 2.2) 2.6 (1.0, 6.7) 1.4 (0.7, 2.8) 2.2 (1.0, 5.1)
All-rounders
n = 302
Count (%) n = 30 (10%) n = 82 (27%) n = 22 (7%) n = 33 (11%) n = 40 (13%) n = 42 (14%)
Crude OR 2.0 (0.9, 4.4) 1.8 (1.1, 2.9) * 1.4 (0.6, 3.2) 2.9 (1.3, 6.8) * 1.2 (0.7, 2.1) 2.4 (1.2, 4.8) *
Adjusted OR^ 1.9 (0.9, 4.2) 1.7 (1.0, 2.7) * 1.5 (0.7, 3.3) 2.3 (1.0, 5.5) 1.2 (0.6, 2.1) 2.1 (1.0, 4.2) *
Batters
n = 174
Count (%) n = 9 (5%) n = 30 (17%) n = 9 (5%) n = 7 (4%) n = 20 (11%) n = 11 (6%)
Reference group
Playing standard
Elite standard
n = 311
Count (%) n = 31 (10%) n = 75 (24%) n = 19 (6%) n = 30 (10%) n = 49 (16%) n = 52 (17%)
Crude OR 1.4 (0.8, 2.3) 1.1 (0.8, 1.6) 1.1 (0.6, 2.0) 0.9 (0.6, 1.5) 1.8 (1.1, 2.7) ** 1.5 (1.0, 2.2)
Adjusted OR^ 1.3 (0.8, 2.1) 1.0 (0.7, 1.4) 1.0 (0.6, 1.9) 0.8 (0.5, 1.3) 1.6 (1.0, 2.5) * 1.3 (0.8, 2.0)
Recreational standard n = 498 Count (%) n = 37 (7%) n = 109 (22%) n = 28 (6%) n = 52 (10%) n = 48 (10%) n = 60 (12%)
Reference group
Length of play (4-season intervals)
  Crude OR 1.1 (1.0, 1.2) 1.0 (1.0, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (1.0, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1)
Adjusted OR^ 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (1.0, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.0) 1.0 (0.9, 1.0)
  1. * P < .05, ** P < .01, *** P < .001 (highlighted in bold);
  2. # This analysis was not performed due to the small number of wicketkeeper-batters that reported ankle pain; ^ ‘Playing position’ and ‘playing standard’ were adjusted for region-specific cricket-related injury; ‘Length of play’ was adjusted for age and region-specific cricket-related injury;
  3. • All results are ORs (odds ratios) and 95% CIs (95% confidence intervals);
  4. • ‘Joint pain’ was evaluated using the following question: ‘Have you had pain in your hip/groin knee, ankle, shoulder, hand/finger, spine/back, other joint on most days of the last month?’;
  5. • ‘Cricket-related injury’ was evaluated using the following question: ‘Have you ever had any cricket-related injuries leading to more than 4 weeks of reduced participation in exercise, training or sport?’ If yes, indicate where (hip/groin, knee, ankle, shoulder, hand/finger, spine/back, other joint);
  6. • ‘Main playing position’: ‘What is/was your predominant position(s) of play?’ Multiple positions (‘Batter’, ‘Bowler’, ‘All-rounder’, ‘Wicketkeeper’, and ‘Don’t know’) could be selected; ‘batter’ category: only ‘Batter’ was selected; ‘bowler’ category: only ‘Bowler’ was selected; ‘all-rounder’ category: ‘All-rounder’ and/or both ‘Batter’ and ‘Bowler’ were selected; ‘wicketkeeper batter’ category: only ‘Wicketkeeper’ or both ‘Wicketkeeper’ and ‘Batter’ were selected; participants selecting other combinations of playing positions (e.g. ‘Wicketkeeper’ and ‘Bowler’) (n = 34) were excluded;
  7. • ‘Playing standard’: ‘What was the highest standard of cricket that you played for at least one season?’ (‘International’, ‘County/ Premier league’, ‘Academy or county age group’, ‘University’, ‘School’, ‘Village or social’, or ‘Don’t know’). The responses were re-coded by dichotomising into ‘recreational standard’ (coded as ‘0’: university, school, village or social) vs. ‘elite standard’ (coded as ‘1’: international or county/premier league, academy or county age group). ‘Don’t know’ responses were excluded;
  8. • ‘Length of play’: ‘Approximately how many seasons have you played cricket for?’ The total seasons played were re-coded into 4-season intervals (i.e. ‘1’ = 1–4 seasons, ‘2’ = 5–8 seasons, ‘10’ = 37–40 seasons etc.) ‘Don’t know’ responses were excluded.