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Table 1 Summary of review findings: Predictors of functional outcomes

From: Predictors of poor functional outcomes and mortality in patients with hip fracture: a systematic review

FactorsOutcomeFrequency of studies reporting associationStudies
Socio-economic Factors
Age• Poor outcomes with older age19/20[22, 25, 26, 29, 32,33,34, 36, 38,39,40,41, 75, 77, 79, 83, 86, 91, 93]
 • Poor outcomes with age group 80–89 years old1/20[90]
Gender• Female more likely poor outcomes
• Male more likely poor outcomes
• No difference
2/9
5/9
2/9
[37, 40]
[23, 27, 39, 45, 46]
[25, 41]
Place of residenceNot living in own home poor outcomes2/2[22, 25]
Race/Ethnicity• Minority race compared to non-Hispanic whites has poor outcomes
• Malay compared to non-Malay has poor outcomes
1/2
1/2
[22]
[33]
Socioeconomic statusPoor outcomes with poverty1/1[22]
Marital statusPoor outcome with no marriage1/1[84]
Medical Factors
Pre-fracture functional status• Low pre-fracture functional status poor outcomes
• High pre-fracture functional status poor outcomes
27/28
1/28
[17, 20, 22, 24, 25, 29, 31,32,33,34, 37, 38, 40,41,42, 44,45,46, 75, 77,78,79, 83, 84, 86, 89, 91]
[26]
Cognitive impairmentPoor outcomes with cognitive impairment24/24[17, 19, 22, 24, 25, 27, 32,33,34, 37, 40, 41, 43,44,45,46,47, 75,76,77,78, 86, 91, 97]
Presence of co-morbiditiesPoor outcomes with presence of co-morbidities8/8[22, 24, 30, 33, 39, 47, 79, 91]
American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)Poor outcomes with higher ASA scores7/7[23, 25, 30, 32, 34, 75, 79]
Hand grip strengthPoor outcomes with low grip strength4/4[27, 28, 35, 85]
Body Mass Index (BMI)Outcomes not related to high BMI1/1[42]
SarcopeniaPoor outcomes with sarcopenia1/1[18]
FrailtyPoor outcomes with frailty1/1[21]
DepressionPoor outcomes with depression2/2[29, 43]
Serum albumin and folic acid levelPoor outcomes with low serum albumin or folic level1/1[86]
Visual impairmentPoor outcomes with visual impairment1/1[86]
Heart failurePoor outcomes with heart failure1/1[86]
HypercholesterolaemiaPoor outcomes with the absence of hypercholesterolaemia1/1[90]
Osteoporotic treatmentPoor outcomes with absence of osteoporotic treatment1/1[94]
OsteoarthritisPoor outcomes with higher grade of osteoarthritis1/1[97]
Pressure ulcersPoor outcomes with pressure ulcers1/1[77]
Surgical Factors
Fracture typePoor outcomes with extra-capsular fracture types5/5[25, 27,28,29, 42]
Delay to SurgeryPoor outcomes with delay to surgery > 48 h3/3[23, 26, 83]
Weight-bearing status• Poor outcomes with non-weight bear status post-op
• Weight bearing status not associated with outcomes
3/4
1/4
[19, 24, 34]
[36]
Associated dislocationPoor outcomes in patient with fracture and associated dislocation1/1[87]
System Factors
Process of carePoor outcomes with poor process of care1/1[80]
Length of hospital stayPoor outcomes with longer length of stay2/2[19, 29]