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Table 2 Characteristics of SI

From: Red flags for the early detection of spinal infection in back pain patients

DeterminantsTotal cases Reported (%)Sum of PapersClinical FeaturesTotal cases Reported (%)Sum of Papers
MorbiditiesSystemically Unwell
 Diabetes399 (17.9)30 Fever1225 (55.1)36
 Cancer112 (5.5)19 Weight loss/ Anorexia173 (7.8)8
 Cardiovascular disease109 (4.9)6 Rigours146 (6.6)3
 Renal failure56 (2.5)10 Fatigue or weakness102 (4.6)6
 Liver disease40 (1.8)10 Sweats/Night sweats76 (3.4)5
 Blood pressure dysfunction40 (1.8)6 Active infection54 (2.4)1
 Rheumatoid Arthritis35 (1.6)7 Sepsis/Septic Shock36 (1.6)2
Social FactorsPain
 Intravenous drug use210 (9.4)15 Spinal Pain1591 (71.5)36
 Corticosteroid use72 (3.2)7 Radiculopathy214 (9.6)12
 Alcoholism41 (1.8)8 Tenderness116 (6.6)6
Triggers   Arthralgia33 (1.5)3
 Surgery124 (5.6)10 Myalgia23 (1.0)3
 Pre-existing Infection123 (5.5)15 Sciatic pain19 (0.9)2
 Immunosuppression96 (4.3)8Neurological Symptoms
 Invasive procedure42 (1.9)6 Neurological dysfunction739 (33.2)26
 Spinal Trauma32 (1.4)6 Limb weakness175 (7.9)9
Environmental Factors   Para/quadriplegia51 (2.3)5
 Migrant70 (3.1)1 Para/quadriparesis46 (2.1)4
 Occupational exposure42 (1.9)3 Paralysis46 (2.1)2
 Lived in rural area28 (1.3)1Urological Symptoms
 Born in TB endemic country18 (0.8)1 Bladder/bowl dysfunction62 (2.8)4
Behavioural Factors Urinary incontinence21 (0.9)2
 Ingestion of unpasteurised dairy product61 (2.7)3Organ Involvement  
 Contact with infected animals29 (1.3)1 Hepatosplenomegaly21 (0.9)4
Predisposing FactorsMiscellaneous
 None & Miscellaneous116 (5.2)8 Constitutional Symptoms199 (8.9)4
 History of TB19 (0.9)1 Spinal deformity30 (1.3)1