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Table 2 Shoulder motion monitoring for application in patients with neurological disorders

From: Wearable systems for shoulder kinematics assessment: a systematic review

Reference, Year, Type of publicationSensors, BrandPlacement and wearabilityTarget shoulder parameters, PerformanceGold standardTask executedParticipantsAim
Bartalesi 2005, [8]
Conference
Strain sensor, WACKER Ltd.
(ELASTOSIL LR 3162 A/B)
Unilateral:
Sensors’ segment series along right upper limb
Shirt
Sh ROMHSWearable garment able to reconstruct shoulder, wrist and elbow movement to correct stroke patients’ rehabilitation exercises
Hester 2006, [42]
Conference
Acc (n = 6)Unilateral:
thumb, index, back of the hand, FA and UA (medially), thorax
Adhesive
Sh ROMReaching, prehension, manipulationSP (n = 12)Predict clinical scores of stroke patients’ motor abilities
Zhou 2006, [43]
Full-Text
IMU (n = 2),
Xsens MT9B
Unilateral:
Wrist (inwards), elbow (outwards)
-
Sh orientation and positionFA FLX-EXT
FA PR-SU, reach test
HS (n = 1, M)Propose a data fusion algorithm to locate the shoulder joint without drift
Willmann 2007, [44]
Conference
M-IMU (n = 4),
Philips
Unilateral:
Torso, shoulder, UA, FA
Garment
Sh ROMHSProvide a home system for upper limb rehabilitation in stroke patients
Zhou 2008, [45]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 2),
Xsens MT9B
Unilateral:
FA (distally, near the wrist center), UA (laterally, on the line between the lateral epicondyle and the acromion process)
Velcro straps
Sh orientation and position,
RMSE = 2.5°-4.8°
CODAreaching
shrugging
FA rotation
HS (n = 4, M)
20–40 Y
Validate data fusion algorithm
Giorgino 2009, [46]
Full-Text
Strain sensor (n = 19),
WACKER Ltd.
(ELASTOSIL LR 3162 A/B)
Unilateral:
Sensors’ sensing segments distributed over the UA, FA, shoulder, elbow, wrist
Shirt
Sh ROMGH FLX (sagittal plane)
Lateral AB
ER
HS (n = 1)Describe a sensing garment for posture recognition in neurological rehabilitation
Lee 2010, [47]
Full-Text
Acc (n = 2),
Freescale MMA7261 QT
Unilateral:
UA, FA
Velcro strap
Sh ROM,
Mean error~0°-3.5°
gonFLX-EXT (sagittal plane)HS (n = 1)Validate performance and accuracy of the system
Chee Kian 2010, [48]
Conference
OLE (n = 1)
Acc (n = 1)
Unilateral:
UA, elbow
Adhesive patch
Sh ROMIGS-190Cyclic movements with arm exerciserHS (n = 1)Validate feasibility and performance (accuracy, repeatability) of the proposed sensing system designed to assist stroke patients in upper limb home rehabilitation
Patel 2010, [49]
Full-Text
Acc (n = 6)Unilateral:
thumb, index, back of the hand, FA, UA, trunk
-
Sh ROM8 activities of FASSP (n = 24)
57.5 ± 11.8 Y
Evaluate accuracy of FAS score obtained via analysis of the accelerometers data comparing such estimates with scores provided by an expert clinician using this scale
Pérez 2010, [15]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 4),
Xsens MTi
Unilateral:
UA (18 cm from acromion), FA (25 cm from epicondyle), hand (5.5 cm from distal radio-cubital joint), back (position is not relevant)
Strap
Sh ROM,
r = 0.997 (for sh IR, after calibration)
BTS SMART-DSh FLX-EXT
Sh horizontal AB-AD
Sh IR
Elb FLX
Elb PR-SU
Wri FLX-EXT
Serving water from a jar
HS (n = 1, F)Validate the system
Bento 2011, [50]
Conference
M-IMU (n = 4)Bilateral:
Shoulder, UA, wrist (affected and unaffected side)
Strap
Sh orientation and positionFA to Table
FA to box
Extend elbow
Hand to table
Hand to box
SP (n = 5, M)
35–73 Y
Preliminary validation of a system able to quantify upper limb motor function in patients after neurological trauma
Nguyen 2011, [51]
Full-Text
OLE (n = 3)
Acc (n = 3)
Unilateral:
Shoulder, elbow, wrist
Clothing module fixed with Velcro straps
Sh ROM,
Test2: RMSE = 3.8° (gon), RMSE = 3.1° (SW)
Test3: ICC = 0.975 (sh)
Test2: gon, Shape-
Wrap
Test2: Bend and
Flex elbow
Test3: reaching task
Test2:
HS (n = 3, M);
Test3:
HS (n = 5)
Validation of the proposed motion capture system
Ding 2013, [52]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 2),
Analog Device (acc: ADXL320), HoneyWell (magn: HMC1 053), Silicon Sensing System (gyr)
Unilateral:
UA (distal, near elbow), FA (distal, near wrist)
Velcro strap
Sh ROMReplication of 10 reference arm postureHS (n = 5)
20–27 Y
Check the feasibility of the proposed system which measures orientation and corrects upper limb posture using vibrotactile actuators
Lee 2014, [53]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 7),
Analog Device (acc:ADXL 345)
InvenSense
(gyr: ITG3200)
Honeywell
(magn: HMC5883L)
Bilateral:
Back, UA, FA and hand
Strap
Sh ROM,
Test1: r = 0.963
Test2: RMSE< 5°
Test1:
gon
Test2: VICON
Sh FLX-EXT
Sh AB
Arm IER
Elb FLX
FA PR-SU
Wri FLX-EXT
Wri radial-ulnar deviation
SP (n = 5)
2 M, 3 F
Mean age: 68 Y
Introduce a smartphone centric wireless wearable system able to automate joint ROM measurements and detect the type of activities in stroke patients
Bai 2015, [54]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 4 or n = 1),
Xsens MTx
Unilateral
Scapula, UA, FA, back of the hand or only on UA
Velfoam, Velcro straps
Sh ROM
(upper limb segments orientation and position)
Test1:
gon
Test2:
gon, VICON
Sh FLX-EXT
Sh IER
Sh AB-AD
Elb FLX-EXT
FA PR-SU
Wri FLX-EXT
Wri radial-ulnar deviation
HS (n = 10)
8 M, 2 F
20–38 Y
P (n = 1), F
41 Y
Evaluate a four-sensor system and a one-sensor system, investigate whether these systems are able to obtain quantitative motion information from patients’ assessment during neurorehabilitation
Ertzgaard 2016, [55]
Full-Text
IMU (n = 5),
Analog Device, Adis 16,350
Bilateral:
Back (upper body), UA and FA
Strap
Sh ROM
(HT joint angles),
ICC = 0.768–0.985
CodaMovements that mimic activities of daily lifeHS (n = 10)
2 M, 8 F
34.3 ± 13.1Y
SP (n = 1), F, 43 Y
Validation study to characterize elbow and shoulder motion during functional task using a modified Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA)
Lorussi 2016, [56]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 2),
Xsens MTw
Strain sensor (n = 1),
Smartex
Unilateral:
M-IMU sensors on sternum and UA
Textile-based strain sensor on the back (from the spine to scapula)
Shirt
Sh ROM
(HT joint angle and scapular translation)
BTS SMART-DXUA FLX (sagittal plane)
UA AB (frontal plane)
HS (n = 5)Validate sensors and data fusion algorithm to reconstruct scapular-humeral rhythm
Mazamenos 2016, [57]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 2),
Shimmer2r
Unilateral:
UA (distal, near elbow), FA (distal, near wrist)
Straps
Sh ROM (segments’ orientation and position)EXP1: Reach and retrieve, lift object to mouth, rotate an object
EXP2: preparing a cup of tea
HS (n = 18)
M, F
25–50 Y
SP (n = 4)
M, F
45–73 Y
Evaluate the performance and robustness of a detection and discrimination algorithm of arm movements
Jiang 2017, [58]
Conference
Acc (n = 4), Analog Device ADXL362
EMG (n = 4), Analog Device AD8232
Temperature (n = 1)
Unilateral:
along upper limb
Shirt
Sh ROM4 typical joint actions performed in clinical assessmentHS (n = 1), MIntroduce an IoT-Bases upper limb rehabilitation assessment system for stroke patients
Li 2017, [59]
Full-Text
IMU (n = 2), InvenSense, MPU-9250
EMG (n = 10), American Imex, Dermatrode
Unilateral:
IMU: UA, wrist
EMG: FA (n = 8), UA (n = 2)
Stretchable belt
Sh ROM11 tasks including:
Sh FLX, Sh AB
Wri FLX-EXT,
Fetch and hold a ball or a cylindric roll, finger to nose, touch the back of the sh, FA PR-SU
HS (n = 16)
10 M, 6 F
36.25 ± 15.19Y
SP (n = 18)
11 M, 7 F
55.28 ± 12.25 Y
Propose data fusion from IMU and surface EMG for quantitative motor function evaluation in stroke subjects
Newman 2017, [60]
Full-Text
IMU (n = 3), Gait Up SA Physilog4Bilateral:
sternum, UA (posterior)
Velcro straps, adhesive patch
Sh ROM
(HT joint angles)
Reaching movements (lateral, forward, upward)Children (n = 30)
10.6 ± 3.4 Y
17 boys, 13 girls
Test an IMU-based system to measure upper limb function in children with hemiparesis and its correlation with clinical scores
Yang e Tan 2017, [61]
Conference
M-IMU (n = 4), APDM OpalUnilateral:
Waist, thorax, UA (distal, near elbow), FA (distal, near elbow)
Straps
Sh ROM
(HT joint angles)
OptitrackMovements related with waist joint, sh joint and elb joints to achieve joint rotationHS (n = 2)Validate the proposed motion tracking system
Daunoraviciene 2018, [62]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 6), ShimmerBilateral:
UA, FA, hand (on centres of mass)
Strap
Sh ROMFNT test (Sh EXT, sh AB, elb FLX, hand SU)CG (n = 24)
7 M 31.14 ± 5.67
17 F
28 ± 3.97
MS-P (n = 34)
13 M
36.46 ± 13.07
21 F
42.19 ± 12.55
Test a M-IMU based system to identify quantitative parameters for evaluation of UL disability and relate it to clinical scores
Jung 2018, [63]
Conference
M-IMU (n = 5), Xsens MTw AwindaBilateral:
UA and FA, trunk
Velcro straps
Sh ROM
(HT join angles), RMSE = 0.32 for the estimation of movements qualities using data of the entire duration of movements
Quality of movements’ label provided by the therapistReaching exerciseSP (n = 5), F
66.6 ± 15.9 Y
Evaluate movements quality regarding compensation and inter-joint coordination; exploiting a supervised machine learning approach, validate the hypothesis that therapists’ evaluation can be made considering only the beginning movement data
Lin 2018, [64]
Full-Text
IMU (n = 2)Unilateral:
UA (distal, near elbow), FA (dorsal aspect of the wrist)
Strap
Sh ROMSh FLX-EXT
Sh AB
Sh ER
Elb FLX
FA PR-SU
SP (n = 18):
n = 9, control group (62.6 ± 7.1)
n = 9, device group (52.2 ± 10.2 Y)
Evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of an IMU-based system for upper limb rehabilitation in stroke patients and compare the intervention effects with those in a control group
Repnik 2018, [7]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 7),
Myo armband, n = 2_ with n = 8 EMGs built-in, Thalamic labs
Bilateral:
-M-IMU: Back of the hand, wrist, UA (distal, near elbow), sternum
-MYO: FA (in the proximity of elbow joint)
Straps, armband
Sh ROM
(HT joint angles)
ARAT tasks: 19 movements divided in 4 subtests (grasp, grip, pinch, gross arm movement)SP (n = 28)
18 M, 10 F
57 ± 9.1 Y
HS (n = 12)
9 M, 3 F
36 ± 8 Y
Quantify UL and trunk movement in stroke patients
  1. acc accelerometer, gyr gyroscope, magn magnetometer, OLE Optical Linear Encoder, IMU Inertial Measurement Unit, M-IMU Magneto and Inertial Measurement Unit, UA Upper Arm, FA Forearm, ROM Range of motion, HT humerothoracic, GH glenohumeral, Sh shoulder, wri wrist, elb elbow, FLX-EXT flexion-extension, PR-SU pronation-supination, AB-AD abduction-adduction, IER internal-external rotation, RMSE root mean square error, r = correlation, ICC Intraclass Correlation Coefficients, gon goniometer, HS Healthy subject, CG control group, SP Stroke Patient, MS-P Multiple Sclerosis Patient, P patient, M male, F female, Y Years old, FAS Functional Ability Scale, ARAT Action research arm test