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Table 4 Comparison of baseline and follow-up outcomes between groupsa

From: Effects of pain neuroscience education in hospitalized patients with high tibial osteotomy: a quasi-experimental study using propensity score matching

 Follow-up to baselineDifference in change between groupsa
InterventionControlMean (95% CI)P valueCohen’s d
Primary
 Pain at rest (NRS)−1.0 (0.9)− 1.1 (1.0)0.1 (−0.2, 0.4)0.4700.07
 Pain during walking (NRS)−2.1 (1.6)−1.9 (1.7)−0.2 (− 0.8, 0.4)0.4600.14
Secondary
 Pain catastrophizing (PCS)−13.7 (8.6)−9.9 (8.7)−3.8 (−0.2, −7.4)0.0360.44
 Self-efficacy (PSEQ)6.0 (10.3)2.1 (10.5)4.0 (−0.3, 8.3)0.0700.38
 Knee extension
  Operative side−0.03 (0.14)0.00 (0.13)−0.03 (− 0.08, 0.03)0.3500.19
  Nonoperative side0.05 (0.11)0.02 (0.12)0.03 (−0.02, 0.07)0.2480.24
 10-m walking test0.1 (5.5)1.8 (5.0)−1.7 (−3.8, 0.5)0.1210.32
  1. Data in first two columns are presented as mean (standard deviation). Baseline: preoperative, Follow-up: 5 weeks postoperatively, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, NRS numerical rating scale, PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PSEQ Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. aValues adjusted for baseline scores using analysis of covariance