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Table 2 Effects of Prolotherapy, Physiotherapy, and Combined treatments on primary and secondary outcomes at all time points over 1 year follow-up

From: Prolotherapy injections and physiotherapy used singly and in combination for lateral epicondylalgia: a single-blinded randomised clinical trial

Outcome Prolotherapy Combined Physiotherapy Combined vs Prolotherapy Physiotherapy vs Prolotherapy Physiotherapy vs Combined
PRTEE, /100 Mean (SD) Mean improvement from baseline (95% CI)
0 weeks 31.6 (10.3) 31.3 (10.8) 33.5 (10.0)
6 weeks 24.5 (14.6) 18.3 (12.2) 19.7 (14.3) 5.35 (−1.77, 12.5) 6.31 (−0.83, 13.5) 0.96 (− 6.23, 8.16)
12 weeks 18.2 (13.5) 12.4 (10.1) 12.2 (12.4) 5.21 (− 0.99, 11.4) 7.42 (1.51, 13.3)* 2.21 (−4.29, 8.70)
26 weeks 8.9 (8.2) 8.2 (10.5) 9.3 (10.4) −0.11 (−6.21, 5.99) 1.01 (−4.56, 6.58) 1.12 (−4.99, 7.24)
52 weeks 4.9 (7.4) 3.9 (5.5) 4.4 (7.0) 0.35 (−4.91, 5.61) 2.10 (−3.31, 7.51) 1.75 (−2.94, 6.45)
Pain at rest, /10    
0 weeks 2.0 (1.6) 1.8 (1.5) 2.1 (2.0)
6 weeks 1.9 (2.0) 1.3 (1.9) 1.5 (1.5) 0.4 (−0.7, 1.4) 0.7 (− 0.2, 1.7) 0.4 (− 0.6, 1.3)
12 weeks 0.8 (1.3) 0.8 (1.2) 1.0 (1.5) −0.3 (−1.04, 0.5) 0.0 (− 0.8, 0.8) 0.3 (− 0.5, 1.0)
26 weeks 0.3 (0.7) 0.5 (1.7) 0.8 (1.3) −0.4 (−1.2, 0.5) − 0.3 (− 1.2, 0.5) 0.1 (− 0.9, 1.0)
52 weeks 0.2 (0.5) 0.2 (0.5) 0.2 (0.6) − 0.2 (− 0.9, 0.5) 0.1 (− 0.6, 0.9) 0.3 (− 0.4, 1.1)
Worst pain in the last week, /10    
0 weeks 7.4 (1.6) 6.1 (2.4) 7.3 (2.0)
6 weeks 5.4 (2.2) 3.7 (2.3) 3.7 (2.6) 0.2 (−0.9, 1.4) 1.5 (0.5, 2.6)* 1.3 (0.1, 2.5)*
12 weeks 4.0 (2.5) 3.0 (2.1) 2.5 (2.6) −0.4 (−1.6, 0.8) 1.4 (0.2, 2.6)* 1.7 (0.6, 2.9)*
26 weeks 2.0 (2.0) 2.1 (2.1) 1.6 (2.1) −1.5 (−2.7, −0.2)* 0.2 (− 1.1, 1.5) 1.7 (0.3, 3.0)*
52 weeks 1.1 (2.0) 0.9 (1.6) 0.9 (1.6) −1.1 (−2.3, 0.1) 0.0 (− 1.0, 1.1) 1.1 (0.0, 2.2)*
PFG, affected/unaffected ratio    
0 weeks 0.56 (0.34) 0.55 (0.32) 0.64 (0.55)
6 weeks 0.87 (0.57) 0.84 (0.66) 0.80 (0.34) −0.03 (−0.30, 0.24) −0.11 (− 0.37, 0.15) −0.08 (− 0.31, 0.15)
12 weeks 0.79 (0.31) 0.81 (0.46) 1.00 (0.50) 0.02 (−0.16, 0.19) 0.12 (−0.13, 0.37) 0.10 (− 0.14, 0.34)
26 weeks 0.92 (0.23) 0.89 (0.39) 1.03 (0.35) −0.03 (− 0.22, 0.17) 0.03 (− 0.22, 0.27) 0.05 (− 0.20, 0.31)
52 weeks 1.01 (0.16) 0.96 (0.23) 1.05 (0.25) −0.05 (− 0.21, 0.12) −0.05 (− 0.27, 0.18) −0.002 (− 0.22, 0.22)
EuroQoL, /100    
0 weeks 82.7 (12.9) 83.1 (11.2) 80.4 (16.9)
6 weeks 80.6 (11.8) 83.0 (11.6) 83.9 (13.4) 1.6 (−5.5, 8.6) 4.9 (−4.2, 14.0) 3.3 (−5.3, 11.9)
12 weeks 83.1 (9.9) 86.2 (8.9) 85.9 (13.6) 2.4 (−4.1, 8.8) 4.9 (−3.8, 13.6) 2.5 (−5.7, 10.8)
26 weeks 86.3 (12.1) 87.8 (8.9) 87.2 (12.7) 0.9 (−6.5, 8.4) 2.6 (−7.1, 12.3) 1.7 (−7.1, 10.5)
52 weeks 88.5 (9.3) 86.9 (11.3) 85.3 (17.3) −2.4 (−9.1, 4.3) −1.2 (−11.6, 9.3) 1.2 (−8.7, 11.2)
Success, number of events/total sample size (percentage)   RR (95% CI)  
6 weeks 4/22 (18.2%) 8/26 (30.8%) 10/26 (38.5%) 1.69 (0.59, 4.87) 2.12 (0.77, 5.81) 1.25 (0.59, 2.66)
12 weeks 13/28 (46.4%) 19/35 (54.3%) 19/33 (57.6%) 1.17 (0.71, 1.93) 1.24 (0.76, 2.03) 1.06 (0.70, 1.62)
26 weeks 26/36 (72.2%) 27/35 (77.1%) 25/34 (73.5%) 1.07 (0.81, 1.40) 1.02 (0.77, 1.36) 0.95 (0.73, 1.25)
52 weeks 32/35 (91.4%) 31/33 (93.9%) 28/34 (82.4%) 1.03 (0.90, 1.17) 0.90 (0.75, 1.09) 0.88 (0.73, 1.05)
Recurrence, number of events/total sample size (percentage)   RR (95% CI)  
12 weeks 4/26 (15.4%) 8/30 (26.7%) 6/30 (20.0%) 1.73 (0.59, 5.10) 1.30 (0.41, 4.11) 0.75 (0.30, 1.90)
26 weeks 5/32 (15.6%) 9/35 (25.7%) 6/34 (17.6%) 1.65 (0.62, 4.40) 1.13 (0.38, 3.34) 0.69 (0.27, 1.72)
52 weeks 5/34 (14.7%) 10/32 (31.3%) 8/34 (23.5%) 2.13 (0.82, 5.54) 1.60 (0.58, 4.40) 0.75 (0.34, 1.67)
  1. Combined = prolotherapy+physiotherapy; Success = completely recovered or much improved on the global rating of change scale; PFG = pain-free grip; PRTEE = Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation; RR = relative risk; CI = confidence interval; SD = standard deviation
  2. * p < 0.05; between-group comparisons data from GEE analyses with positive results in favour of the first group; RR > 1.0 favours the first group; RR < 1.0 favours the first group