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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Wrist pain: a systematic review of prevalence and risk factors– what is the role of occupation and activity?

AuthorYearJournalSettingPopulation (number and type)Age – mean (sd) unless statedSexType of studyMeasurement of wrist pain/time periodPrevalence
Carnes et al [41]2008Family PracticeCommunity2493 of general population52 (range 18–102)44% M 56% FCross sectional postal questionnaireChronic wrist pain, at least half the days in last yearRight wrist 5%
Left wrist 4%
Celik et al [24]2018Dimensions of Critical Care NursingHospital111 critical care nurses31.2 (5.8)97 F 14 MCross sectional survey and interviewsWrist pain using CMDQ (Cornell Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire), over last year40.5% right wrist
40.5% left wrist
Chang et al [26]1995RadiologyOpera school326 students14.2 (2.2)137 M 189 FCross sectional questionnaire and radiographsQuestioned as to presence of wrist pain, not specified52.5%
Das et al [17]2014International Journal of Occupational Medcine and Environmental HealthWorkplace (office and brick fields)220 brick field workers and 130 controls35.5 (6.2)
brick field
34.2 (6.7) controls
100% MCross sectional in 2 groupsModified NMDQ (Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire), not specified85% (brick field workers)
3% (office workers)
Davatchi et al [15]2008The Journal of RheumatologyCommunity10,291 general population30 (estimate from data provided)51.1% M 48.9% FCross sectionalCOPCORD Core Questionnaire (CCQ) wrist pain, in last 7 days10%
Davatchi et al [42]2015Internal Journal of Rheumatic DiseasesCommunity19,786 general population30
(estimate from data provided)
0.9:1 M:FCross sectionalCOPCORD Core Questionnaire (CCQ) wrist pain in last 7 days10.4%
DiFiori et al [13]2002Clinical Journal of Sports MedicineGymnastics club47 gymnasts9.6 (range 5 to 1626 M 21FCross sectional studyWrist pain within last six months57%
DiFiori et al [12]2002American Journal of Sports MedicineGymnastics club59 gymnasts9.331 M 28FCross sectional studyWrist pain within last six months56%
DiFiori et al [14]1996American Journal of Sports MedicineGymnastics club54 gymnasts11.8 (5.2)21 M 33FCross sectional studyWrist pain within last six months73%
Gangopadhyay et al [18]2007Industrial HealthWorkplace (brass metal workers and office)50 brass metal workers
50 office
40.4 (6.4) brass
39.3 (4.1) office
100% MCross sectional in 2 groupsWrist discomfort as modified NMDQ over last 12 months62% brass metal workers
4% office
Harutunian et al [16]2011Med Oral Patol Oral Cir BucalDental school74 (54 students and 20 faculty)28.9 (range 23–52)47% M 53% FCross sectionalQuestionnaire, wrist pain with last 6 months27.1%
Hawkes et al [43]2013British Journal of Sports MedicineGolf club128 professional golfers33.3 (6.3)100% MCross sectionalQuestionnaire, wrist problems currently11.1%
Hou et al [44]2006Journal of Nursing ResearchHospitals5169 nurses30 approximately100% FCross sectionalModified NMDQ, wrist pain, over last year10.5%
Inaba et al [45]2011Industrial HealthWorkplace (goods sorting)47 sorting cold goods
86 sorting dry goods
50.8100% FCross sectionalQuestionnaire, presence of wrist pain, over 4 month period68% (cold goods)
41% (dry goods)
Jonasson et al [19]2011Knee Surg Sports Traumatol ArthroscAthletes and University staff75 athletes
12 staff
Athletes 21.5 (range 10–40)
Staff 28 (range 22–38)
100% MCross sectional in 2 groupsQuestionnaire re presence of wrist pain, over last week and last year9% athletes and 0% staff over last week
23% athletes and 9% staff over last year
Kihlberg et al [11]2007Int Arch Occup Environ HealthWorkplace680 workers who use power toolsNot statedNot statedCross sectionalQuestionnaire as regards current wrist pain20%
Kirby et al [20]2001American Journal of Sports MedicineGymnasts and age matched controls60 gymnasts
35 non gymnasts
11.8 (2.3)100% FCross sectional in 2 groupsQuestionnaire, time period not clear33% gymnasts
2% non gymnasts
Kuwabara et al [21]2011World Journal of GastroenterologyHospital190 endoscopists
120 non-endoscopists
41.4 (6.7)
40.1 (7.6)
261 M 49FCross sectional in 2 groupsQuestionnaire, current presence of wrist painRight wrist – 2% endoscopists and 1% non endoscopists
Left wrist – 7% endoscopists and 3% non endoscopists
MacDonald et al [46]2014Journal of Veterinary CardiologyVeterinary echocardiographers198 veterinary echocardiographers40 approximately50% M 50% FCross sectionalQuestionnaire, wrist pain and time not stated5.3%
McCue et al [47]2004Wilderness and Environmental MedicineFly-casting instructors292 fly-casting instructorsNot stated Cross sectionalQuestionnaire, wrist pain for hours/weeks of the year or whole year36.1%
Menzel et al [48]2004International Journal of Nursing StudiesVeteran’s hospital113 nursing staff42 (10.7)13 M 100FCross sectionalWrist pain using CMDQ (Cornell Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire), over last weekAuthor contacted but data was not obtainable
O’Kane et al [49]2011Clinical Journal of Sports MedicineGyms in Seattle96 competitive gymnasts11 approximately100% FCross sectionalQuestionnaire regarding overuse injuries9.2%
Punnett et al [22]1985Scand J Work Environ HealthBoston garment shop and hospital162 garment workers
76 hospital employees
42 (12)
41 (12)
100% FCross sectional in 2 groupsQuestionnaire on wrist pain, most days for one month over last year16.8% garment workers
4.3% hospital employees
Purnell et al [50]2010Physical Therapy in SportAcrobatic gymnastics clubs73 acrobatic gymnasts13.8 (3.6)4 M 69FCross sectionalQuestionnaire on wrist problem, currently affects performance and has for 3 months or more12.7%
Saxena et al [51]2014Asia-Pacific Journal of Public HealthDentist practices213 dentists31.2 (7.34)55.%M 44.6%FCross sectionalQuestionnaire, wrist pain within last 12 months17.8%
Smith et al [52]2004Australian Journal of Rural HealthNursing school260 nursing students25.5 (8.7)28 M 232FCross sectionalQuestionnaire, wrist pain within last 12 months12.7%
Sokas et al [23]1989American Journal of Industrial MedicineGarment workers union144 sewing machine operators
2822 controls
53.8 (range 31–68)13 M 177FCross sectional in 2 groupsQuestionnaire, wrist pain lasting at least a month8.5% sewing machine operators
4.16% controls
Viljamaa et al [53]2017Medical Problems of Performing ArtistsFinnish Musicians’ Union920 musicians45 (10)179 M 182FCross sectionalQuestionnaire, wrist pain in last 30 days and pain exceeding 30 days in last year30% F
(in last 30 days)
(more than 30 days in last year)
Waikakul et al [54]1999The Pain ClinicRubber tree plantattions2609 plantation workersNot stated1603 M
1006 F
Cross sectionalInterview, with chronic pain defined as more than 3 weeks with VAS 3 of more in a year5.5% ulnar sided wrist pain
White [55]2013AnimalsThe Spay Neuter Industry Professionals (SNIP) in USA219 veterinarians41 (range 26 to 76)22 M 196F
(1 not stated)
Cross sectionalWrist pain using modified CMDQ (Cornell Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire), over last week37.9% right wrist
17% left wrist
Woldendorp et al [56]2018Int Arch Occup Environ HealthDutch professional orchestra141 bassists (73 mono-instrument, 68 multiple)34.7 (14.2)
35.3 (15.8)
86.3% M 13.7%F
Cross sectionalWrist pain, within 3 months and > 3 months/VAS severity19.1% right wrist always/often within 3 months
24.1% left wrist always/often within 3 months
Yu et al [25]2013Industrial HealthChinese factories and companies5339 employees35 approximately3632 M
Cross sectionalWrist pain as defined as more than 24 h in last year33.5%