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Table 3 Disc stresses at cephalic adjacent levels

From: Effect of lordosis on adjacent levels after lumbar interbody fusion, before and after removal of the spinal fixator: a finite element analysis

Motion Model L2-L3 L3-L4
(KPa) (KPa)
Flexion INT 880 742
100% 100%
FUS-f-5c 1150 1160
131% 156%
FUS-f-0c 1229 1361
140% 183%
FUS-5c 1079 1125
123% 152%
FUS-0c 1186 1241
135% 167%
Extension INT 398 424
100% 100%
FUS-f-5c 460 524
116% 124%
FUS-f-0c 467 533
117% 126%
FUS-5c 459 522
115% 123%
FUS-0c 460 523
116% 123%
Lateral Bending INT 951 906
100% 100%
FUS-f-5c 1033 980
109% 108%
FUS-f-0c 1099 1062
116% 117%
FUS-5c 1019 958
107% 106%
FUS-0c 1078 1053
113% 116%
Torsion INT 314 345
100% 100%
FUS-f-5c 317 360
101% 104%
FUS-f-0c 325 399
104% 116%
FUS-5c 300 330
96% 96%
FUS-0c 320 374
102% 108%
  1. The percentages indicate the disc stresses of all models normalized by the disc stresses of INT