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Table 2 Facet joint forces in cephalic adjacent levels

From: Effect of lordosis on adjacent levels after lumbar interbody fusion, before and after removal of the spinal fixator: a finite element analysis

Motion Model L2-L3 L3-L4
(N) (N)
Extension INT 65 71
100% 100%
FUS-f-5c 82 105
126% 148%
FUS-f-0c 84 107
129% 151%
FUS-5c 73 90
112% 127%
FUS-0c 75 94
115% 132%
Lateral Bending INT 19 9
100% 100%
FUS-f-5c 23 17
121% 189%
FUS-f-0c 23 18
121% 200%
FUS-5c 21 14
111% 156%
FUS-0c 21 15
111% 167%
Torsion INT 125 124
100% 100%
FUS-f-5c 137 165
110% 133%
FUS-f-0c 137 168
110% 135%
FUS-5c 129 141
103% 114%
FUS-0c 129 141
103% 114%
  1. The percentages indicate the facet joint forces of all models normalized by the facet joint forces of INT