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Table 4 Means in the PT-group gait speed (m/s) at normal and fast speed and in maximum voluntary muscle force (Kg) of the right and left m. Quadriceps at baseline and after 9 week pre-surgery intervention divided in number of treatment sessions. Within- and between groups differences over time

From: Effects of pre-surgery physiotherapy on walking ability and lower extremity strength in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder: Secondary outcomes of the PREPARE randomised controlled trial

  Patients Baseline   Within group changes   Between group change  
n,
Treatment
sessions
(median, range)
Mean (SD) p-Value Mean (SD) change
from baseline
p-Value Effect size* Mean difference (95% CI) p-Value Effect size** (95% CI)
Gait speed normal
 0-11 treatment sessions 17 (5, 0-10) 1.15 (0.14) 0.711 −0.06 (0.10) 0.035 - 0.37 0.04 (−0.04 to 0.12) 0.305 −0.312 (−0.635 - 0.012)
  ≥ 12 treatment sessions 55 (18, 12-23) 1.12 (0.27) − 0.10 (0.15) < 0.001 - 0.37
Gait speed fast
 0-11 treatment sessions 17 (5, 0-10) 1.54 (0.32) 0.857 −0.05 (0.22) 0.299 - 0.21 0.08 (−0.04 to 0.19) 0.181 −0.372 (− 0.698 - -0.046)
  ≥ 12 treatment sessions 55 (18, 12-23) 1.52 (0.40) −0.13 (0.21) < 0.001 - 0.84
Quadriceps strength, right
 0-11 treatment sessions 18 (5, 0-10) 25.23 (9.01) 0.069 −1.93 (7.50) 0.289 - 0.19 - 0.26 (−3.34 to 2.80) 0.865 0.014 (−0,277 – 0.36)
  ≥ 12 treatment sessions 54 (18, 12-23) 21.23 (7.58) −1.67 (4.96) 0.016 - 0.20
Quadriceps strength, left
 0-11 treatment sessions 18 (5, 0-10) 22.51 (8.30) 0.765 −3.82 (10.50) 0.141 - 0.36 - 1.90 (−5.80 to 2.10) 0.354 0.22 (−0.101 – 0.541)
  ≥ 12 treatment sessions 54 (18, 12-23) 21.80 (8.81) −1.96 (5.96) 0.019 - 0.22
  1. SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval. Bold text p < .05. *Cohen d, **Hedges g