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Table 2 Means in gait speed (m/s) at normal and fast speed and in maximum voluntary muscle force (Kg) of the right and left m. Quadriceps at baseline and after 9 week pre-surgery intervention. Within- and between groups differences over time

From: Effects of pre-surgery physiotherapy on walking ability and lower extremity strength in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder: Secondary outcomes of the PREPARE randomised controlled trial

   Baseline   Within group changes   Between group change
n Mean (SD) p-Value Mean (SD) change from baseline p-Value Effect size* Mean difference (95% CI) p-Value
Gait speed, normal
 PT 72 1.10 (0.24) 0.112 - 0.09 (0.14) < 0.001 - 0.34 0.07 (0.02 to 0.12) 0.005
 Waiting-list 77 1.13 (0.24) - 0.01 (0.17) 0.556 - 0.04
Gait speed, fast
 PT 72 1.52 (0.44) 0.989 - 0.12 (0.22) 0.001 - 0.29 0.21 (0.07 to 0.26) < 0.001
 Waiting-list 75 1.53 (0.38) 0.05 (0.36) 0.222 0.12
Quadriceps strength, right
 PT 72 22.20 (8.08) 0.958 - 1.74 (5.64) 0.011 - 0.11 2.80 (0.74 to 4.87) < 0.001
 Waiting-list 80 22.22 (9.70) 1.54 (6.51) 0.026 0.16
Quadriceps strength, left
 PT 72 21.81 (8.62) 0.912 - 2.40 (7.31) 0.006 - 0.25 3.28 (1.30 to 5.20) 0.003
 Waiting-list 78 21.80 (9.10) 0.38 (5.40) 0.368 0.01
  1. PT, physiotherapy group; SD, standard deviation; CI, confidence interval. Bold text p < .05. *Cohen d