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Table 2 Sensitivity analysis comparing mean values adjusted for age by an ANCOVA to that of the unadjusted mean values by the Independent t-test. Only the variable Moderate-intensive physical activity in daily life (registered by accelerometer) reduced its effect size one level due to the adjusted analysis. The P-values changed in both directions

From: Relative difference among 27 functional measures in patients with knee osteoarthritis: an exploratory cross-sectional case-control study

ICF Variables Cases (n = 28) Control (n = 31) Unadj
M d %
Adj
M d %
D %,
U - A
ES
Eta2
ES inter-pret. P P
   Unadj M (SD) Adj
M (SE)
Unadj M (SD) Adj M (SE)       Unadj Adj
Body Function Level 30sCST, n 14.0 (4.2) 14.2 (0.8) 16.3 (4.2) 16.2 (0.8) 15.2 13.2 2 0.049 Small 0.042* 0.096
RPE-6MWT 6.0 (1.8) 6.1 (0.3) 5.5 (1.7) 5.4 (0.3) 8.7 12.2 −3.5 0.039 Small 0.257 0.139
RPE-10StUpDw 3.3 (1.7) 3.4 (0.3) 3.1 (1.3) 3.1 (0.3) 6.3 9.2 −2.9 0.011 Small 0.546 0.427
Knee ext strength inv. leg, Nm/kg 1.16 (0.48) 1.15 (0.09) 1.46 (0.38) 1.48 (0.08) 22.9 25.1 −2.2 0.108 Mod. 0.010* 0.012*
Knee ext strength
uninv. Leg, Nm/kg
1.45 (0.36) 1.45 (0.08) 1.64 (0.46) 1.64 (0.08) 12.3 12.3 0.0 0.043 Small 0.088 0.12
Activity Level 10StUpDwT, sec 10.8 (3.1) 10.4 (0.4) 7.8 (1.1) 8.1 (0.4) 32.2 24.9 7.3 0.198 Large 3.6E-5‡ 4.7E-04†
TUG, sec 6.6 (1.2) 6.5 (0.2) 5.7 (0.9) 5.8 (0.2) 14.6 11.4 2.2 0.84 Mod. 0.0014† 0.027*
6MWT, m 642.5 (94.6) 651.5 (16.6) 717.4 (75.4) 709.2 (15.7) 11.0 8.4 2.6 0.094 Mod. 0.0014† 0.019*
Particip. Örebo PsySoc 39.0 (12.7) 38.0 (2.2) 12.8 (9.6) 13.7 (2.1) 101.2 93.0 8.2 0.515 V. L. 1.6E-12§ 2.3E-10§
Mod.-int. act., min/wk 286.0 (169.1) 306.6 (29.1) 382.5 (134.5) 363.7 (27.5) 28.9 17.0 11.9 0.032 Small* 0.018* 0.17
  1. Notes. Mod.-int. act. = moderate-intensive physical activity in daily life, the only variable which showed a one level downward adjustment on effect size due to the adjusted analysis; Unadj. M d % = Unadjusted mean difference in per cent; D % U-A = difference in per cent Unadjusted mean % difference minus Adjusted mean % difference; P = the exact P-value; 30sCST = number of chair-to-stand raise in 30 s; RPE-6MWT = rate of perceived exertion at the end of the six-minute walk test (scaled 0–10, no exertion to highest exertion); RPE-10StUpDw = rate of perceived exertion at the end of the 10 step up and down stair climb test; Knee ext. strength inv. leg = Knee extension strength test on the involved leg and the uninvolved leg are given at the 30° flexed knee position (straight knee is 0°); 6MWT = the distance (in m) walked during the six-minute walk test; Örebro PsySoc = the Örebro Musculoskeletal Psychosocial Questionnaire 10 items, a 1 to 100 scale, best to worst. ES Eta2 = an effect size estimate equal to partial η2 scaled > 0.01 = small, > 0.06 = moderate, > 0.13 = large. * = significant result, † = highly significant result, ‡ = very highly significant result, § = extremely highly significant result