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Table 4 Results for normalised (%SMVC) amplitude EMG of the right musculature during functional tasks

From: Investigating differences in trunk muscle activity in non-specific chronic low back pain subgroups and no-low back pain controls during functional tasks: a case-control study

Task Muscle AEP FP Healthy Kruskal-Wallis Mann Whitney-U Pairwise comparisons (post hoc)
(*p < 0.05) (*p < 0.0167)
Number of trials Mean (SD) Number of trials Mean (SD) Number of trials Mean (SD)   
Step Down TrA/IO 21 57.4 (32.3) 21 62.3 (34.5) 25 52.6 (32.6) 0.576
EO 21 54.4 (26.8) 24 46.2 (23.9) 22 38.8 (21.2) 0.109
sLM 20 33.8 (32.2) 22 24.6 (23.6) 25 16.2 (10.7) 0.136
LT 18 25.8 (20.6) 22 26.2 (17.7) 26 26.9 (24.5) 0.937
Step Up TrA/IO 21 55.1 (31.4) 21 65.0 (39.0) 25 51.1 (33.4) 0.419
EO 21 53.8 (25.0) 24 46.8 (25.0) 22 36.8 (19.7) 0.059
sLM 20 33.8 (33.8) 22 25.0 (24.8) 25 14.6 (9.7) 0.046* AEP vs H
LT 18 26.7 (21.0) 22 26.2 (19.2) 26 25.8 (27.9) 0.547
Reach Up TrA/IO 23 50.2 (25.0) 20 63.6 (36.8) 25 50.2 (35.2) 0.284
EO 23 50.7 (23.1) 24 44.2 (23.7) 22 36.7 (19.7) 0.108
sLM 20 26.9 (25.2) 22 19.4 (23.1) 26 12.9 (8.7) 0.039* AEP vs H
LT 19 26.7 (26.2) 22 22.7 (16.0) 26 21.1 (16.6) 0.698
Pick Up Pen (Bend Down) TrA/IO 21 54.1 (34.3) 20 64.1 (38.0) 26 50.0 (31.1) 0.391
EO 21 50.2 (23.8) 24 43.9 (25.7) 21 35.0 (17.8) 0.101
sLM 18 28.4 (26.4) 23 20.0 (23.6) 24 16.3 (12.8) 0.132
LT 18 25.6 (21.5) 23 24.0 (18.5) 26 23.6 (19.0) 0.827
Pick Up Pen (Return) TrA/IO 21 54.9 (34.5) 20 62.3 (37.4) 25 48.5 (27.8) 0.45
EO 20 50.3 (26.4) 24 43.2 (25.2) 21 34.5 (17.8) 0.122
sLM 18 29.0 (24.8) 23 20.4 (22.3) 24 16.1 (10.2) 0.089
LT 17 26.9 (21.8) 23 24.1 (17.9) 26 24.2 (23.8) 0.625
Stand-to-Sit TrA/IO 22 59.7 (49.4) 18 68.3 (53.1) 24 44.3 (27.3) 0.266
EO 22 53.6 (25.5) 21 46.2 (24.0) 20 37.8 (20.4) 0.14
sLM 20 50.8 (67.8) 21 31.2 (23.6) 24 19.8 (18.3) 0.054
LT 17 56.3 (79.5) 22 32.1 (17.3) 24 40.8 (48.7) 0.693
Sit-to-Stand TrA/IO 22 58.8 (52.4) 18 55.1 (34.8) 23 42.1 (27.6) 0.381
EO 22 51.5 (24.9) 21 44.6 (23.2) 21 44.0 (37.6) 0.259
sLM 19 44.9 (76.9) 21 23.0 (24.9) 23 12.5 (7.1) 0.254
LT 18 27.7 (22.3) 22 23.5 (15.7) 24 33.5 (47.8) 0.523
Box Replace TrA/IO 23 61.2 (41.8) 20 69.3 (44.2) 25 52.3 (37.5) 0.453
EO 23 55.5 (25.6) 23 44.4 (24.7) 21 37.8 (19.3) 0.062
sLM 19 33.1 (23.3) 23 22.9 (22.5) 25 17.1 (11.1) 0.026* AEP vs H
LT 19 33.5 (26.9) 22 24.6 (16.8) 25 27.1 (28.7) 0.486
Box Lift TrA/IO 23 61.3 (42.1) 20 69.7 (44.9) 25 52.0 (38.2) 0.349
EO 23 57.6 (25.6) 23 43.8 (23.4) 21 37.5 (19.1) 0.019 AEP vs H
sLM 19 32.9 (22.5) 23 24.6 (24.3) 25 18.4 (12.0) 0.051
LT 18 31.9 (25.5) 22 25.3 (16.6) 25 29.0 (32.7) 0.469
  1. Key: FP = Flexion pattern motor control impairment, AEP = Active extension pattern motor control impairment, H = Healthy, SD = Standard deviation, * = significant difference (p < 0.05), TrA/IO = Transversus Abdominis / Internal Oblique, EO = External Oblique, sLM = superficial Lumbar Multifidus, LT = Longissimus Thoracis (Erector Spinae)