Skip to main content

Table 3 Subject baseline characteristics across groups. (Note: Values are mean (SD) unless otherwise stated)

From: Investigating differences in trunk muscle activity in non-specific chronic low back pain subgroups and no-low back pain controls during functional tasks: a case-control study

Variable AEP FP Healthy Significance
(n = 23) (n = 27) (n = 28)
Subject Demographics
 Gender
  Males 4 (17.4%) 21 (77.8%) 12 (42.9%) p < 0.001*
  Females 19 (82.6%) 6 (22.2%) 16 (57.1%)
 Age (years) 43.7 (11.2) 41.0 (10.0) 38.5 (11.2) p = 0.238
 Mass (kg) 68.9 (18.0) 82.5 (14.6) 72.9 (15.2) p = 0.005*
(AEP vs. FP)
 Height (cm) 164.9 (10.2) 175.9 (8.7) 169.4 (7.3) p < 0.001*
(AEP vs. FP/FP vs. H)
 BMI (kg/m2) 20.8 (4.9) 23.4 (3.5) 21.5 (4.1) p = 0.127
Pain
 Site of Back Pain N(%)
  Right 8 (34.8%) 5 (18.5%)
  Left 2 (8.7%) 3 (11.1%)
  Central 13 (56.4%) 19 (70.4%)
 Time Since Pain Onset N(%)
  3–6 months 2 (8.7%) 8 (29.6%)
  6–12 months 7 (30.4%) 2 (7.4%)
  1–2 years 1 (4.3%) 3 (11.1%)
  2–3 years 0 (0%) 1 (3.7%)
  3–4 years 2 (8.7%) 2 (7.4%)
  4–5 years 3 (13%) 3 (11.1%)
  5–10 years 3 (13%) 4 (14.8%)
  10+ years 5 (21.7%) 4 (14.8%)
Patient Reported Measures
  AEP FP   
(n = 23) (n = 26)
 ODQ 22.5 (11.6) 21.6 (10.0) p = 0.773
 DRAM 29.8 (12.5) 22.7 (10.9) p = 0.027*
 VAS 4.6 (1.4) 4.5 (1.4) p = 0.986
 TSK 37.5 (6.8) 37.6 (5.3) p = 0.993
  1. Key: FP = Flexion pattern motor control impairment, AEP = Active extension pattern motor control impairment, H = Healthy, BMI = Body Mass Index (mass (kg)/height (m)2), kg = kilogrammes, cm = centimetres, *significant difference (p < 0.05), ODQ = Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, DRAM = Distress and Risk assessment method, VAS = Visual Analogue Scale, TSK = Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia