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Table 1 Overview of included studies

From: Gluteus medius muscle function in people with and without low back pain: a systematic review

StudyParticipants LBP GroupParticipants control groupType of LBPDuration of LBPPresence of LBP at BaselineGluteus medius measurement outcome
Aboufazeli et al. 2018 [39] Iran.n = 30
Mean age, years (SD): 34.6 (6.2)
Population: Not reported
Gender: 100%F
BMI (SD): 23.4 (3.2)
n = 30
Mean age, years (SD): 36.7 (6.7)
Population: Note reported
Gender: 100%F
BMI (SD): 23.6 (3.3)
Nonspecific LBP≥3 monthsYesMuscle thickness
Arab & Nourbakhsh 2010 [4] Irann = 100
Mean age, years (SD): 42.58 (14.1)
Population: Patients of orthopaedic department
Gender: Not Reported
BMI (SD): 25.03 (3.0)
n = 100
Mean age, years (SD): 43.40 (4.41)
Population: Patients of orthopaedic department
Gender: Not Reported
BMI (SD): 25.68 (4.1)
Not Reported> 6 weeksYesStrength
Cai & Kong 2015 [23] Singaporen = 18
Mean age, years (SD): 27.80 (NR)
Population: Recreational Runners
Gender: 50%F
BMI (SD): 21.75 (NR)
n = 18
Mean age, years (SD): 24.60 (NR)
Population: Recreational Runners
Gender: 50%F
BMI (SD): 21.40 (NR)
Not Reported> 3 months, but less than 36 monthsYesStrength
Cooper et al. 2016 [16] USAn = 150
Mean age, years (SD): 41.40 (13.0)
Population: Patients at Iowa Spine Centre Physical Therapy Clinic
Gender: 64.70%F
BMI (SD): 29.60 (7.2)
n = 75
Mean age, years (SD): 40.70 (13.9)
Population: Patients at Iowa Spine Centre Physical Therapy Clinic
Gender: 64.30%F
BMI (SD): 25.80 (7.0)
Nonspecific LBP> 3 monthsYes – Only one participant reported no current LBPStrength and trigger points
Embaby & Abdallah 2013 [24] Egyptn = 15
Mean age, years (SD): 29.53 (2.4)
Population Clinical Instructors
Gender: 100%F
BMI (SD): 24.01 (NR)
n = 15
Mean age, years (SD): 29.07 (2.4)
Population: Clinical Instructors
Gender: 100%F
BMI (SD): 22.63 (NR)
NonspecificPeriods of mild or moderate LBP for > 6 monthsNot ReportedFatigability
Farahpour et al. 2018 [17] Irann = 15
Mean age, years (SD): 25.30 (2.9)
Population: Patients from a ‘clinic’
Gender:0%F
BMI (SD): 26.80 (1.5)
n = 15
Mean age, years (SD): 26.00 (2.9)
Population: Not reported
Gender: 0%F
BMI (SD): 25.90 (3.2)
Not reportedNot reportedYesActivity level
Farasyn & Meeusen 2005 [35] Belgiumn = 87
Mean age, years (SD): 43.00 (13.0)
Population: Physiotherapy patients
Gender: 55.17%F
BMI (SD): 20.50 (2.8)
n = 64
Mean age, years (SD): 40.00 (11.0)
Population: Physiotherapy patients
Gender: 62.50%F
BMI (SD): 21.50 (3.2)
Nonspecific LBPSubacute nonspecific lower back painYesTrigger points
Hides et al. 2016 [25] AustraliaAs a whole group
LBP n = 7, no LBP n = 18
Mean age, years (SD): 24.40 (5.5)
Population: Elite Footballers
Gender: 0%F
BMI (SD): 23.61 (NR)
Not ReportedNot reportedNot reportedStrength
Hungerford et al. 2003 [26] Australia= 14
Mean age, years (SD): 32.70 (NR)
Population: Men with SIJP
Gender: 0%F
BMI (SD): 24.63 (NR)
n = 14
Mean age, years (SD): 33.50 (NR)
Population: without SIJP
Gender: 0%F
BMI (SD):23.40 (NR)
SIJP> 2 monthsYesActivity level and time to onset
Iglesias-Gonzalez et al. 2013 [27] Spainn = 42
Mean age, years (SD): 45.00 (10.0)
Population: Patients of a private physical therapy clinic
Gender: 50.00%F
BMI (SD):24.50 (3.2)
n = 42
Mean age, years (SD): 45.00 (9.0)
Population: Subjects who responded to local advertisements
Gender: 50.00%F
BMI (SD): 24.90 (3.4)
Nonspecific LBP> 3 yearsYesTrigger points
Kendall et al. 2010 [5] Canadan = 10
Mean age, years (SD): 32.00 (NR)
Population: Not Stated
Gender: 80.00%F
BMI (SD): 20.86 (NR)
n = 10
Mean age, years (SD): 26.00 (NR)
Population: Not Stated
Gender: 80.00%F
BMI (SD): 21.61 (NR)
Nonspecific LBP> 6 weeksYesStrength
Larsen et al. 2018 [38] Denmarkn = 27
Mean age, years (SD): 27.40 (9.9)
Population: University campus and hospital
Gender: 44.44
BMI (SD): 21.90 (3.2)
n = 26
Mean age, years (SD): 23.60 (4.4)
Population: University campus and hospital
Gender: 61.53%F
BMI (SD): 23.80 (2.5)
Nonspecific> 3 yearsNoActivity level
Mendis et al. 2016 [37] AustraliaAs a whole group
LBP n = 13, no LBP n = 33
Mean age, years (SD): 22.80 (3.5)
Population: Australian Elite AFL Players
Gender: 0%F
BMI (SD): 25.00 (NR)
Not ReportedNot ReportedYesCross-sectional area
Nelson-Wong et al. 2013 [6] USAn = 17
Mean age, years (SD): 27.71 (10.6)
Population: general population
Gender: not reported
BMI (SD): 23.42 (2.9)
n = 17
Mean age, years (SD): 28.52 (10.2)
Population: general population
Gender: not reported
BMI (SD): 22.99 (1.8)
Not ReportedNot ReportedYesTime to onset
Njoo & Van der Does 1994 [36] Netherlandsn = 61
Mean age, years (SD): 36.20 (9.8)
Population: Patients of participating health care centres
Gender: 44.20%F
BMI (SD): Not Reported
n = 61
Mean age, years (SD): 38.10 (9.9)
Population: Every 10th patients of health care centres without LBP
Gender: 50.70%F
BMI (SD): Not Reported
Nonspecific LBPRecent episode of less than 2 monthsNoTrigger points
Notzel et al. 2011 [28] Germanyn = 8
Mean age, years (SD): 42.40 (14.5)
Population: Not Reported
Gender: 100%F
BMI (SD): 23.10 (2.4)
n = 12
Mean age, years (SD): 27.30 (7.1)
Population: Not Reported
Gender: 100%F
BMI (SD): 20.40 (2.6)
Nonspecific LBP> 6 months several times per week or dailyNot ReportedActivity level
Nourbakhsh & Arab 2002 [3] Irann = 300
Mean age, years (SD): 43.00 (NR)
Population: Hospital inpatients
Gender: 50.00%F
BMI (SD): 25.76 (NR)
n = 300
Mean age, years (SD): 43.00 (NR)
Population: Hospital inpatients
Gender: 50.00%F
BMI (SD): 24.44 (NR)
Not Reported> 6 weeksYesStrength
Penney et al. 2014 [29] Canadan = 21
Mean age, years (SD): 46.00 (15.2)
Population: Patients at local physiotherapy clinics
Gender: 42.85%F
BMI (SD): 27.40 (NR)
n = 22
Mean age, years (SD): 44.00 (15.5)
Population: University and Hospital Community
Gender: 33.36%F
BMI (SD): 26.95 (NR)
Nonspecific LBP> 12 weeksYesActivity level, time to onset, and strength
Rabel et al. 2013 [30] USAn = 12
Mean age, years (SD): 44.40 (14.6)
Population: Physiotherapy patients
Gender: 58.33%F
BMI (SD): 29.70 (10.3)
n = 22
Mean age, years (SD): 27.20 (4.6)
Population: Recreationally active
Gender: 50.00%F
BMI (SD): 24.70 (4.9)
Not Reported< 2 months and
> 3/10 on VAS
YesTime to onset
Ringheim et al. 2015 [31] Norwayn = 17
Mean age, years (SD):39.00 (5.4)
Population: Hospital outpatients
Gender: 58.82%F
BMI (SD): 25.90 (4.7)
n = 20
Mean age, years (SD): 40.20 (5.4)
Population: Not Reported
Gender: 61.90%F
BMI (SD): 25.20 (3.7)
Nonspecific> 3 monthsYesActivity level and fatigability
Santos et al. 2013 [18] Braziln = 29
Mean age, years (SD): 45.80 (14.3)
Population: Orthopaedic patients
Gender: 100%F
BMI (SD): 24.15 (3.9)
n = 30
Mean age, years (SD): 44.57 (13.6)
Population: Not Reported
Gender: 100%F
BMI (SD): 23.77 (2.1)
Nonspecific LBP> 3 monthsNoActivity level and time of peak
Skorupska et al. 2016 [32] Polandn = 71
Mean age, years (SD): 47.70 (8.4)
Population: Not reported
Gender: 61.97%F
BMI (SD): Not Reported
n = 29
Mean age, years (SD): 47.60 (9.9)
Population: Not reported
Gender: 65.51%F
BMI (SD): Not Reported
Not ReportedSubacute or ChronicYesCross-sectional area
Sutherlin & Hart 2015a [33] USAn = 12
Mean age, years (SD): 24.00 (4.0)
Population: Not Reported
Gender: Not Reported %F
BMI (SD): 25.19 (3.4)
n = 12
Mean age, years (SD): 22.00 (3.0)
Population: Not Reported
Gender: Not Reported %F
BMI (SD): 21.28 (2.4)
Not ReportedNot reportedYesStrength
Sutherlin & Hart 2015b [34] USAn = 12
Mean age, years (SD): 24.00 (4.0)
Population: Not Reported
Gender: 58.33%F
BMI (SD): 25.19 (3.4)
n = 12
Mean age, years (SD): 22.0 (3.0)
Population: Not Reported
Gender: 75.00%F
BMI (SD): 21.28 (2.4)
Not ReportedNot reportedYesActivity level and fatigability
  1. SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, LBP low back pain, NR not reported, SLR single leg raise, T12 12th thoracic vertebra, SIJP Sacroiliac joint pain, SIJ Sacroiliac joint