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Table 1 Overview of included studies

From: Gluteus medius muscle function in people with and without low back pain: a systematic review

Study

Participants LBP Group

Participants control group

Type of LBP

Duration of LBP

Presence of LBP at Baseline

Gluteus medius measurement outcome

Aboufazeli et al. 2018 [39] Iran.

n = 30

Mean age, years (SD): 34.6 (6.2)

Population: Not reported

Gender: 100%F

BMI (SD): 23.4 (3.2)

n = 30

Mean age, years (SD): 36.7 (6.7)

Population: Note reported

Gender: 100%F

BMI (SD): 23.6 (3.3)

Nonspecific LBP

≥3 months

Yes

Muscle thickness

Arab & Nourbakhsh 2010 [4] Iran

n = 100

Mean age, years (SD): 42.58 (14.1)

Population: Patients of orthopaedic department

Gender: Not Reported

BMI (SD): 25.03 (3.0)

n = 100

Mean age, years (SD): 43.40 (4.41)

Population: Patients of orthopaedic department

Gender: Not Reported

BMI (SD): 25.68 (4.1)

Not Reported

> 6 weeks

Yes

Strength

Cai & Kong 2015 [23] Singapore

n = 18

Mean age, years (SD): 27.80 (NR)

Population: Recreational Runners

Gender: 50%F

BMI (SD): 21.75 (NR)

n = 18

Mean age, years (SD): 24.60 (NR)

Population: Recreational Runners

Gender: 50%F

BMI (SD): 21.40 (NR)

Not Reported

> 3 months, but less than 36 months

Yes

Strength

Cooper et al. 2016 [16] USA

n = 150

Mean age, years (SD): 41.40 (13.0)

Population: Patients at Iowa Spine Centre Physical Therapy Clinic

Gender: 64.70%F

BMI (SD): 29.60 (7.2)

n = 75

Mean age, years (SD): 40.70 (13.9)

Population: Patients at Iowa Spine Centre Physical Therapy Clinic

Gender: 64.30%F

BMI (SD): 25.80 (7.0)

Nonspecific LBP

> 3 months

Yes – Only one participant reported no current LBP

Strength and trigger points

Embaby & Abdallah 2013 [24] Egypt

n = 15

Mean age, years (SD): 29.53 (2.4)

Population Clinical Instructors

Gender: 100%F

BMI (SD): 24.01 (NR)

n = 15

Mean age, years (SD): 29.07 (2.4)

Population: Clinical Instructors

Gender: 100%F

BMI (SD): 22.63 (NR)

Nonspecific

Periods of mild or moderate LBP for > 6 months

Not Reported

Fatigability

Farahpour et al. 2018 [17] Iran

n = 15

Mean age, years (SD): 25.30 (2.9)

Population: Patients from a ‘clinic’

Gender:0%F

BMI (SD): 26.80 (1.5)

n = 15

Mean age, years (SD): 26.00 (2.9)

Population: Not reported

Gender: 0%F

BMI (SD): 25.90 (3.2)

Not reported

Not reported

Yes

Activity level

Farasyn & Meeusen 2005 [35] Belgium

n = 87

Mean age, years (SD): 43.00 (13.0)

Population: Physiotherapy patients

Gender: 55.17%F

BMI (SD): 20.50 (2.8)

n = 64

Mean age, years (SD): 40.00 (11.0)

Population: Physiotherapy patients

Gender: 62.50%F

BMI (SD): 21.50 (3.2)

Nonspecific LBP

Subacute nonspecific lower back pain

Yes

Trigger points

Hides et al. 2016 [25] Australia

As a whole group

LBP n = 7, no LBP n = 18

Mean age, years (SD): 24.40 (5.5)

Population: Elite Footballers

Gender: 0%F

BMI (SD): 23.61 (NR)

Not Reported

Not reported

Not reported

Strength

Hungerford et al. 2003 [26] Australia

= 14

Mean age, years (SD): 32.70 (NR)

Population: Men with SIJP

Gender: 0%F

BMI (SD): 24.63 (NR)

n = 14

Mean age, years (SD): 33.50 (NR)

Population: without SIJP

Gender: 0%F

BMI (SD):23.40 (NR)

SIJP

> 2 months

Yes

Activity level and time to onset

Iglesias-Gonzalez et al. 2013 [27] Spain

n = 42

Mean age, years (SD): 45.00 (10.0)

Population: Patients of a private physical therapy clinic

Gender: 50.00%F

BMI (SD):24.50 (3.2)

n = 42

Mean age, years (SD): 45.00 (9.0)

Population: Subjects who responded to local advertisements

Gender: 50.00%F

BMI (SD): 24.90 (3.4)

Nonspecific LBP

> 3 years

Yes

Trigger points

Kendall et al. 2010 [5] Canada

n = 10

Mean age, years (SD): 32.00 (NR)

Population: Not Stated

Gender: 80.00%F

BMI (SD): 20.86 (NR)

n = 10

Mean age, years (SD): 26.00 (NR)

Population: Not Stated

Gender: 80.00%F

BMI (SD): 21.61 (NR)

Nonspecific LBP

> 6 weeks

Yes

Strength

Larsen et al. 2018 [38] Denmark

n = 27

Mean age, years (SD): 27.40 (9.9)

Population: University campus and hospital

Gender: 44.44

BMI (SD): 21.90 (3.2)

n = 26

Mean age, years (SD): 23.60 (4.4)

Population: University campus and hospital

Gender: 61.53%F

BMI (SD): 23.80 (2.5)

Nonspecific

> 3 years

No

Activity level

Mendis et al. 2016 [37] Australia

As a whole group

LBP n = 13, no LBP n = 33

Mean age, years (SD): 22.80 (3.5)

Population: Australian Elite AFL Players

Gender: 0%F

BMI (SD): 25.00 (NR)

Not Reported

Not Reported

Yes

Cross-sectional area

Nelson-Wong et al. 2013 [6] USA

n = 17

Mean age, years (SD): 27.71 (10.6)

Population: general population

Gender: not reported

BMI (SD): 23.42 (2.9)

n = 17

Mean age, years (SD): 28.52 (10.2)

Population: general population

Gender: not reported

BMI (SD): 22.99 (1.8)

Not Reported

Not Reported

Yes

Time to onset

Njoo & Van der Does 1994 [36] Netherlands

n = 61

Mean age, years (SD): 36.20 (9.8)

Population: Patients of participating health care centres

Gender: 44.20%F

BMI (SD): Not Reported

n = 61

Mean age, years (SD): 38.10 (9.9)

Population: Every 10th patients of health care centres without LBP

Gender: 50.70%F

BMI (SD): Not Reported

Nonspecific LBP

Recent episode of less than 2 months

No

Trigger points

Notzel et al. 2011 [28] Germany

n = 8

Mean age, years (SD): 42.40 (14.5)

Population: Not Reported

Gender: 100%F

BMI (SD): 23.10 (2.4)

n = 12

Mean age, years (SD): 27.30 (7.1)

Population: Not Reported

Gender: 100%F

BMI (SD): 20.40 (2.6)

Nonspecific LBP

> 6 months several times per week or daily

Not Reported

Activity level

Nourbakhsh & Arab 2002 [3] Iran

n = 300

Mean age, years (SD): 43.00 (NR)

Population: Hospital inpatients

Gender: 50.00%F

BMI (SD): 25.76 (NR)

n = 300

Mean age, years (SD): 43.00 (NR)

Population: Hospital inpatients

Gender: 50.00%F

BMI (SD): 24.44 (NR)

Not Reported

> 6 weeks

Yes

Strength

Penney et al. 2014 [29] Canada

n = 21

Mean age, years (SD): 46.00 (15.2)

Population: Patients at local physiotherapy clinics

Gender: 42.85%F

BMI (SD): 27.40 (NR)

n = 22

Mean age, years (SD): 44.00 (15.5)

Population: University and Hospital Community

Gender: 33.36%F

BMI (SD): 26.95 (NR)

Nonspecific LBP

> 12 weeks

Yes

Activity level, time to onset, and strength

Rabel et al. 2013 [30] USA

n = 12

Mean age, years (SD): 44.40 (14.6)

Population: Physiotherapy patients

Gender: 58.33%F

BMI (SD): 29.70 (10.3)

n = 22

Mean age, years (SD): 27.20 (4.6)

Population: Recreationally active

Gender: 50.00%F

BMI (SD): 24.70 (4.9)

Not Reported

< 2 months and

> 3/10 on VAS

Yes

Time to onset

Ringheim et al. 2015 [31] Norway

n = 17

Mean age, years (SD):39.00 (5.4)

Population: Hospital outpatients

Gender: 58.82%F

BMI (SD): 25.90 (4.7)

n = 20

Mean age, years (SD): 40.20 (5.4)

Population: Not Reported

Gender: 61.90%F

BMI (SD): 25.20 (3.7)

Nonspecific

> 3 months

Yes

Activity level and fatigability

Santos et al. 2013 [18] Brazil

n = 29

Mean age, years (SD): 45.80 (14.3)

Population: Orthopaedic patients

Gender: 100%F

BMI (SD): 24.15 (3.9)

n = 30

Mean age, years (SD): 44.57 (13.6)

Population: Not Reported

Gender: 100%F

BMI (SD): 23.77 (2.1)

Nonspecific LBP

> 3 months

No

Activity level and time of peak

Skorupska et al. 2016 [32] Poland

n = 71

Mean age, years (SD): 47.70 (8.4)

Population: Not reported

Gender: 61.97%F

BMI (SD): Not Reported

n = 29

Mean age, years (SD): 47.60 (9.9)

Population: Not reported

Gender: 65.51%F

BMI (SD): Not Reported

Not Reported

Subacute or Chronic

Yes

Cross-sectional area

Sutherlin & Hart 2015a [33] USA

n = 12

Mean age, years (SD): 24.00 (4.0)

Population: Not Reported

Gender: Not Reported %F

BMI (SD): 25.19 (3.4)

n = 12

Mean age, years (SD): 22.00 (3.0)

Population: Not Reported

Gender: Not Reported %F

BMI (SD): 21.28 (2.4)

Not Reported

Not reported

Yes

Strength

Sutherlin & Hart 2015b [34] USA

n = 12

Mean age, years (SD): 24.00 (4.0)

Population: Not Reported

Gender: 58.33%F

BMI (SD): 25.19 (3.4)

n = 12

Mean age, years (SD): 22.0 (3.0)

Population: Not Reported

Gender: 75.00%F

BMI (SD): 21.28 (2.4)

Not Reported

Not reported

Yes

Activity level and fatigability

  1. SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, LBP low back pain, NR not reported, SLR single leg raise, T12 12th thoracic vertebra, SIJP Sacroiliac joint pain, SIJ Sacroiliac joint