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Table 4 Person-level associations between photographic hand OA progression and radiographic, clinical and symptomatic outcomes at 7 years

From: Longitudinal validity of using digital hand photographs for assessing hand osteoarthritis progression over 7 years in community-dwelling older adults with hand pain

  Change in summed photographic hand OA score
Mean (95% CI) No Progression (change ≤ 0)
(n = 153)
Mild Progression (change 1–2) Moderate progression (change ≥ 3) ANOVA
p value
(n = 59) (n = 41)
7-year summed radiographic OA score* (0–40) 7.2 (6.4, 8.0) 8.2 (6.9, 9.4) 10.4 (8.9, 11.9) F = 7.1
p = 0.001
7-year summed number of clinical features* (0–28) 10.6 (9.8, 11.5) 10.9 (9.6, 12.2) 14.4 (12.7, 16.0) F = 8.3
p = < 0.001
7-year AUSCAN Pain * (0–20) 6.2 (5.5, 6.8) 6.6 (5.7, 7.6) 7.1 (5.9, 8.2) F = 1.0
p = 0.366
7-year AUSCAN Function* (0–36) 9.9 (9.0, 10.8) 10.8 (9.3, 12.3) 10.5 (8.7, 12.3) F = 0.5
p = 0.586
7-year AUSCAN Stiffness* (0–4) 1.0 (0.9, 1.2) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1.2 (0.9, 1.5) F = 0.9
p = 0.407
7-year Summed total AUSCAN score* (0–60) 17.0 (15.5, 18.5) 18.4 (16.0, 20.9) 18.6 (15.7, 21.5) F = 0.7
p = 0.481
Global perceived change in hand problem % (n): Chi Square
p value
 improved 23.0% (n = 35) 8.6% (n = 5) 9.8% (n = 4) Χ2 = 13.0
p = 0.369
 no change 25.7% (n = 39) 27.6% (n = 16) 24.4% (n = 10)
 deteriorated 51.3% (n = 78) 63.8% (n = 37) 65.9% (n = 27)
  Change in number of hand joints with photographic hand OA progression
Mean (95%CI) No Progression (no joints)
(n = 120)
Mild Progression (1–2 joint) Moderate progression (≥3 joints) ANOVA
p value
(n = 92) (n = 41)
7-year summed radiographic OA score* (0–40) 6.5 (5.6, 7.4) 8.6 (7.8, 9.7) 10.3 (8.8, 11.8) F = 10.9
p < 0.001
7-year summed number of clinical features* (0–28) 10.5 (9.5, 11.4) 11.0 (9.9, 12.0) 14.4 (12.8, 16.1) F = 8.4
p0.001
7-year AUSCAN Pain* (0–20) 5.9 (5.2, 6.6) 6.8 (6.0, 7.6) 7.2 (6.0, 8.4) F = 2.5
p = 0.081
7-year AUSCAN Function* (0–36) 9.5 (8.4, 10.5) 10.6 (9.3, 11.8) 11.6 (9.8, 13.4) F = 2.3
p = 0.102
7-year AUSCAN Stiffness* (0–4) 1.0 (0.8, 1.1) 1.1 (0.9, 1.3) 1.2 (0.9, 1.5) F = 1.1
p = 0.330
7-year Summed total AUSCAN score* (0–60) 16.1 (14.4, 17.8) 18.5 (16.5, 20.4) 19.8 (16.9, 22.7) F = 2.9
p = 0.056
Global perceived change in hand problem % (n): Chi Square
p value
 improved 22.7% (n = 27) 15.4% (n = 14) 7.3% (n = 3) Χ2 = 13.3
p = 0.345
 no change 27.7% (n = 33) 24.2% (n = 22) 24.4% (n = 10)
 deteriorated 49.6% (n = 59) 60.4% (n = 55) 68.3% (n = 28)
  1. * Adjusted for baseline score. AUSCAN, Australian/Canadian Hand Osteoarthritis Index; ANOVA, Analysis of Variance