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Table 4 Results of meta-analytic moderator analyses for job control (skill discretion) and social support (combined and colleagues)

From: Psychosocial areas of worklife and chronic low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Job control-skill discretion Social support-combined Social support-colleagues
k OR LL UL I 2 z-Test k OR LL UL I 2 z-Test k OR LL UL I 2 z-Test
Study Design
 Cross-sectional 3 1.01 0.72 1.43 0.0 p = .211 4 0.72 0.53 0.98 69.1 p = .651 3 0.68 0.47 1.00 75.9 p = .570
 Prospective 4 0.78 0.62 0.98 80.7   8 0.78 0.64 0.96 68.3   4 0.78 0.59 1.04 65.2  
Occupation
 Blue      p = .211 2 1.21 0.79 1.87 81.6 p = .101      p = .570
 Mixed 4 0.78 0.62 0.98 80.7   5 0.73 0.60 0.89 25.0   4 0.78 0.59 1.04 65.2  
 Pink 3 1.01 0.72 1.43 0.0   5 0.74 0.58 0.93 58.8   3 0.68 0.47 1.00 75.9  
Study Quality
 High      p = 1.00      p = 1.00      p = 1.00
 Medium 7 0.85 0.69 1.04 69.9   12 0.77 0.65 0.90 65.7   7 0.75 0.61 0.93 66.4  
 Low                
Country
 Asia 1 1.00 0.63 1.58 0.0 p < .001 2 0.57 0.34 0.95 0.0 p = .212      p = .057
 Australia/NZ       1 0.44 0.22 0.87 0.0       
 Europe 5 0.91 0.81 1.03 0.0   8 0.82 0.68 1.00 70.5   6 0.70 0.58 0.85 47.9  
 Northern America 1 0.52 0.41 0.67 0.0   1 0.85 0.53 1.36 0.0   1 1.08 0.73 1.59 0.0  
Exposure (months) 4 PE = -.044, SE = .012   p < .001 8 PE = .022, SE = .006   p < .001 4 PE = .033, SE = .012   p = .007
Year of Publication 7 PE = −.048, SE = .018   p = .007 12 PE = −.032, SE = .020   p = .102 7 PE = .044, SE = .017   p = .011
Sample Size 7 PE < −.001, SE < .001   p = .581 12 PE < .001, SE < .001   p = .713 7 PE < .001, SE < .001   p = .620
Mean Age 7 PE = −.035, SE = .023   p = .130 12 PE = −.020, SE = .019   p = .287 7 PE = .036, SE = .021   p = .081
Females (%) 7 PE = .005, SE = .002   p = .033 12 PE = −.003, SE = .002   p = .088 7 PE = −.004, SE = .003   p = .185
  1. k Number of included studies, OR Mean sample size-weighted (pooled) odds ratio, LL Lower limit of 95% confidence (precision) interval (CI), UL Upper limit of 95% CI, I2 Index of heterogeneity I2 (percent), PE Point estimate of predictor from meta-regression (and corresponding standard error SE)