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Table 3 Results of meta-analytic moderator analyses for workload, job control (combined) and job control (decision authority)

From: Psychosocial areas of worklife and chronic low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Workload Job control-combined Job control-decision authority
k OR LL UL I 2 z-Test k OR LL UL I 2 z-Test k OR LL UL I 2 z-Test
Study Design
 Cross-sectional 7 1.38 1.22 1.56 0.0 p = .332 6 0.88 0.70 1.10 36.1 p = .385 4 0.80 0.63 1.01 52.1 p = .164
 Prospective 7 1.25 1.07 1.45 2.4   7 0.77 0.63 0.93 77.2   4 0.63 0.49 0.80 68.1  
Occupation
 Blue 3 1.63 1.16 2.28 0.0 p = .441 3 0.84 0.58 1.21 0.0 p = .832 1 0.72 0.44 1.19 0.0 p = .343
 Mixed 6 1.28 1.12 1.47 19.9   5 0.77 0.61 0.97 84.7   3 0.60 0.45 0.81 74.2  
 Pink 5 1.32 1.13 1.54 19.0   5 0.85 0.66 1.11 46.9   4 0.80 0.63 1.02 52.1  
Study Quality
 High      p = .675      p = .548      p = .265
 Medium 11 1.30 1.15 1.48 6.3   11 0.82 0.70 0.97 69.9   7 0.74 0.61 0.91 74.1  
 Low 3 1.37 1.14 1.64 7.9   2 0.72 0.47 1.10 79.2   1 0.51 0.28 0.95 0.0  
Country
 Asia 2 1.38 1.04 1.83 0.0 p = .946 2 0.89 0.70 1.14 0.0 p < .001 1 0.81 0.63 1.04 0.0 p = .003
 Australia/NZ 1 1.20 0.78 1.84 0.0            
 Europe 9 1.31 1.11 1.54 17.1   9 0.88 0.80 0.96 7.4   5 0.80 0.67 0.95 39.8  
 Northern America 2 1.37 1.02 1.86 51.5   2 0.49 0.41 0.60 0.0   2 0.47 0.36 0.62 0.0  
Exposure (months) 7 PE = .004, SE = .011   p = .724 7 PE = .001, SE = .002   p = .346 4 PE = −.004, SE = .013   p = .766
Year of Publication 14 PE = −.012, SE = .015   p = .419 13 PE = −.035, SE = .017   p = .039 8 PE = −.056, SE = .023   p = .014
Sample Size 14 PE < .001, SE < .001   p = .335 13 PE < .001, SE < .001   p = .980 8 PE < −.001, SE < .001   p = .503
Mean Age 14 PE = −.004, SE = .014   p = .798 13 PE = −.029, SE = .013   p = .028 8 PE = −.023, SE = .016   p = .149
Females (%) 14 PE = −.001, SE = .001   p = .645 13 PE = .002, SE = .002   p = .364 8 PE = .003, SE = .002   p = .111
  1. k Number of included studies, OR Mean sample size-weighted (pooled) odds ratio, LL Lower limit of 95% confidence interval (CI), UL Upper limit of 95% CI, I2 Index of heterogeneity I2 (in percent), PE Point estimate of predictor from meta-regression (and corresponding standard error SE)