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Table 1 General demographics of 15 patients with iliopsoas abscess associated with cardiovascular disorders

From: Clinical features, management, and outcome of iliopsoas abscess associated with cardiovascular disorders: a hospital-based observational case series study

  Clinical outcome Total (n, %; mean ± SD) P value
Alive (n, %; mean ± SD) Death (n, %; mean ± SD)
Gender        0.525
 Male 8 (89%) 4 (67%) 12 (80%)  
 Female 1 (11%) 2 (33%) 3 (20%)  
Age# 63.8 ±16.4 62.3 ±19.3 63.2 ±16.9 1.000
Hospital stay (days) 42.6 ±19.2 19.0 ±14.1 33.1 ±20.5 0.018*
Complicated condition        0.028*
 Intubation with intensive care unit (ICU) stay ≤3 days 6 (67%) 0 (0%) 6 (40%)  
 Intubation with ICU stay > 3 days 3 (33%) 6 (100%) 9 (60%)  
Lactatemia (Lactate > 12 mg/dl) 7 (88%) 4 (80%) 11 (85%) 1.000
Hypoalbuminemia (Albumin < 2.5 g/dl) 2 (22%) 6 (100%) 8 (53%) 0.007**
Anemia (Hemoglobin < 10 g/dl) 4 (44%) 3 (50%) 7 (47%) 1.000
Leukocytosis (White blood cells > 12,000/mm3) 6 (67%) 4 (67%) 10 (67%) 1.000
Left shift phenomenon (Neutrophils > 80%) 6 (75%) 4 (67%) 10 (71%) 1.000
Bandemia 2 (22%) 2 (33%) 4 (27%) 1.000
Thrombocytopenia (Thrombocytes < 140,000/mm3) 2 (22%) 2 (33%) 4 (27%) 1.000
Hyponatremia (Sodium < 135 mEq/l) 7 (78%) 5 (83%) 12 (80%) 1.000
Hyperkalemia (Potassium > 5.3 mEq/l) 0 (0%) 1 (17%) 1 (7%) 0.400
Hypokalemia (Potassium < 3.5 mEq/l) 0 (0%) 1 (17%) 1 (7%) 0.400
Impaired renal function        
 Blood urea nitrogen (BUN > 25 mg/dl) 4 (44%) 2 (33%) 6 (40%) 1.000
 Creatinine (Cr > 1.4 mg/dl) 4 (44%) 3 (50%) 7 (47%) 1.000
 BUN/Cr (> 20) 3 (33%) 3 (50%) 6 (40%) 0.622
Impaired liver function (GPT > 50 U/l or GOT > 40 U/l) 4 (44%) 1 (17%) 5 (33%) 0.580
Hyperglycemia (Blood glucose > 200 mg/dl) 3 (33%) 4 (67%) 7 (47%) 0.315
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)# 113.7 ±14.8 118.2 ±20.9 115.5 ±16.9 0.768
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)# 68.4 ±10.7 73.2 ±14.0 70.3 ±11.9 0.479
Heart rate (beats/min)# 105.8 ±19.7 103.8 ±17.4 105.0 ±18.2 0.679
Body temperature (°C)# 37.0 ±1.5 37.2 ±0.7 37.1 ±1.2 0.407
Respiratory rate (breaths/min)# 18.6 ±1.3 19.7 ±2.0 19.0 ±1.6 0.346
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome 7 (78%) 5 (83%) 12 (80%) 1.000
Infectious source c        0.870
 Primary mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm 4 (44%) 2 (33%) 6 (40%)  
 Stent-graft/endograft infection 3 (33%) 2 (33%) 5 (33%)  
 Infective endocarditis 2 (22%) 2 (33%) 4 (27%)  
Clinical treatment        0.235
 Antibiotics only 1 (11%) 3 (50%) 4 (27%)  
 Drainage/Surgery 8 (89%) 3 (50%) 11 (73%)  
Blood culture (n = 9 vs. 5)        0.580
 Monomicrobial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) 7 (78%) 3 (60%) 10 (71%)  
 Polymicrobial 2 (22%) 2 (40%) 4 (29%)  
Pus/Tissue culture (n = 4 vs. 3)        0.429
 Monomicrobial (Gram-positive only) 2 (50%) 0 (0%) 2 (29%)  
 Polymicrobial 2 (50%) 3 (100%) 5 (71%)  
Treatment at other rural hospitals 2 (22%) 2 (33%) 4 (27%) 1.000
Maximum diameter of iliopsoas abscess (IPA)# 3.7 ±1.4 4.5 ±2.0 4.0 ±1.6 0.480
Maximum diameter of IPA > 3 cm 5 (56%) 4 (67%) 9 (60%) 1.000
Gas-forming 2 (22%) 3 (50%) 5 (33%) 0.329
Involvement c        0.683
 Right 3 (33%) 1 (17%) 4 (27%)  
 Left 2 (22%) 1 (17%) 3 (20%)  
 Bilateral 4 (44%) 4 (67%) 8 (53%)  
Multiple lobulated 9 (100%) 6 (100%) 15 (100%)
Discitis/Paraspinal/Epidural abscess 0 (0%) 3 (50%) 3 (20%) 0.044*
Receiving transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) 6 (67%) 3 (50%) 9 (60%) 0.622
Infective endocarditis found on TEE 2 (22%) 2 (33%) 4 (27%) 1.000
Recurrence of IPA 3 (33%) 0 (0%) 3 (20%) 0.229
Tool for follow up        0.329
 Computed tomographic scan 7 (78%) 3 (50%) 10 (67%)  
 No mentioned or Unknown 2 (22%) 3 (50%) 5 (33%)  
Hypertension 5 (56%) 3 (50%) 8 (53%) 1.000
Diabetes mellitus 3 (33%) 4 (67%) 7 (47%) 0.315
Cerebrovascular accident 2 (22%) 2 (33%) 4 (27%) 1.000
Bed-ridden status 1 (11%) 3 (50%) 4 (27%) 0.235
Malignancy 2 (22%) 1 (17%) 3 (20%) 1.000
Chronic kidney disease 3 (33%) 0 (0%) 3 (20%) 0.229
Alcoholism 2 (22%) 1 (17%) 3 (20%) 1.000
Hemodialysis 1 (11%) 0 (0%) 1 (7%) 1.000
Intravenous drug abuse 1 (11%) 1 (17%) 2 (13%) 1.000
  1. #Mann-Whitney U test. Fisher’s exact test. cChi-Square test. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01
  2. Continuous data were expressed median and IQR
  3. Categorical data were expressed number and percentage