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Table 1 Risk factors at baseline for disabling wrist/hand pain in past month at follow-up

From: Determinants of international variation in the prevalence of disabling wrist and hand pain

Risk factor Number of subjects Number with disabling WHP Association with disabling wrist/hand pain
PRR (95%CI)a PAF(%)b
Sex
 Male 3099 225 1   
 Female 5983 1148 1.7 (1.5,2.1) 35.8
Age (years)
 20–29 2094 252 1   
 30–39 2920 369 0.9 (0.8,1.1)  
 40–49 2607 459 1.2 (1.0,1.4)  
 50–59 1461 293 1.3 (1.0,1.7) 5.3
Smoking status
 Never smoked 5865 913 1   
 Ex-smoker 1290 207 1.2 (1.0,1.3) 2.0
 Current smoker 1903 251 1.1 (1.0,1.3)  
 Missing 24 2    
Use of keyboard or other repeated movements of wrist/hand for > 4 h 6742 1159 1.3 (1.1,1.6) 21.3
Psychosocial aspects of work
 Work for > 50 h per week 2052 178 1.0 (0.8,1.1)  
 Time pressure at work 6776 1074 1.1 (1.0,1.2) 8.1
 Incentives at work 2509 380 1.1 (1.0,1.2)  
 Lack of support at work 2340 444 1.0 (0.9,1.2)  
 Job dissatisfaction 1766 233 1.0 (0.9,1.2)  
 Lack of job control 1827 289 1.0 (0.9,1.2)  
 Job securityc 6407 993 1.1 (1.0,1.2) 6.3
Number of distressing somatic symptoms in past week
 0 5444 562 1   
 1 1978 360 1.2 (1.1,1.4) 5.1
 2+ 1610 441 1.4 (1.2,1.6) 9.4
 Missing 50 10    
Mental health
 Good 3612 477 1   
 Intermediate 2739 407 1.1 (1.0,1.2)  
 Poor 2697 486 1.2 (1.0,1.3) 4.9
 Missing 34 3    
Adverse health beliefs about arm pain
 Work-relatedness 2746 547 1.1 (1.0,1.2)  
 Physical activity 1110 174 1.0 (0.9,1.1)  
 Prognosis 929 204 1.2 (1.1,1.4) 2.8
Individual pain propensity index
 0 2028 115 1   
 1 2014 193 1.4 (1.1,1.8) 4.3
 2 1870 262 1.8 (1.5,2.2) 8.7
 3 1307 242 2.2 (1.8,2.7) 9.6
 4 938 210 2.4 (2.0,2.9) 8.9
 5 499 171 3.2 (2.5,4.0) 8.5
 6+ 426 180 3.6 (2.9,4.4) 9.4
Heard of “RSI” or equivalent 5084 789 1.0 (0.9,1.1)  
  1. aPrevalence rate ratio with 95% confidence interval
  2. bPopulation attributable fraction per cent (presented only for associations that were statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  3. cNote that because risk was higher in participants who reported their employment as being more secure, insecure employment was taken as the reference for the risk estimate