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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Effect of medications on prevention of secondary osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, non-vertebral fracture, and discontinuation due to adverse events: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study ID Number of participants had prevalent fractures Proportion of participants had prevalent fractures Mean age (year) Intervention & Comparison Calcium Vitamin D Observation period (year) Lost to follow up
Compare with control group
Zoledronate
  Nakamura, 2017 [17] 661 100% 74.15 G1: Zoledronate 5 mg/year, intravenous infusion;
G2: PLC
Both groups Both groups 2 0.6%
Alendronate
  Black, 1996 [18] 1942 100% 71 G1: Alendronate 5 mg/d on the first 2 years,
10 mg/d on the third year
G2: PLC
Selectively offer Selectively offer 3 9%
  Kushida, 2004 a [19] 170 100% 72 G1: Alendronate 5 mg/d
G2: Alfacalcidol 1 μg/d
1.5 g/d Alfacalcidol 3 30%
  Liberman, 1995 a [20] 165 18.72% 64 G1: Alendronate 5–10 mg/d
G2: PLC
All groups Not reported 3 16%
Risedronate
  Clemmesen, 1997 [21] 132 100% 68 G1: Risedronate 2.5 mg/d continuously
G2: Risedronate 2.5 mg/ cyclically
G3: PLC
All groups Not reported 3 30%
  Reginster, 2000 [22] 690 100% 71 G1: Risedronate 5 mg/d;
G2: Risedronate 2.5 mg/d;
G3: PLC
All groups All groups 3 42%
  Sorensen, 2003 [23] 212 100% 72 G1: Risedronate 5 mg/d
G2: PLC
Both groups Both groups 2 17%
  Fogelman, 2000 a [24] 237 43.81% 64 G1: Risedronate 2.5 mg/d
G2: Risedronate 5 mg/d
G3: PLC
All groups Not reported 2 21%
  Harris, 1999 [25] 1374 100% 69 G1: Risedronate 5 mg/d;
G2: Risedronate 2.5 mg/d;
G3: PLC
All groups All groups 3 42%
Etidronate
  Guanabens, 2000 [26] 118 100% 65 G1: Etidronate 400 mg/d for 14 days in a cyclic of 90 days
G2: Sodium fluoride 50 mg/d
Selectively offer Not reported 3 34%
  Lyritis, 1997 [27] 100 100% 72 G1: Etidronate 400 mg/d for 20 days in a cyclic of 90 days
G2: 5 days’ vitamin D + 85 days calcium
Both groups Both groups 4 26%
  Montessori, 1997 a [28] 28 35% 62.5 G1: Etidronate 400 mg/d for 14 days in a cyclic of 90 days
G2: Calcium 500 mg/d
Selectively offer Not reported 3 20%
  Shiota, 2001 a [29] 24 60% 61.7 G1: Etidronate 200 mg/d for 14 days in a cyclic of 84 days
G2:2 g/d calcium and 0.5 μg/d alphacalcidol for 2 years
Selectively offer Selectively offer 2 Not reported
  Harris, 1993 [36] 423 100%   G1: PLC and PLC
G2: Phosphate and PLC
G3: PLC and Etidronate 400 mg/daily for 14 in a cycle of 91 days
G4: Phosphate and Etidronate
All groups Not mentioned 4c 20%
  Watts, 1990 [30] 423 100% 65 G1: PLC for 17 days in a cyclic of 91 days
G2: Phosphonate 2 g/d for 3 days in a cyclic of 91 days
G3: Etidronate 400 mg/d for 14 days in a cyclic of 91 days
G4: Phosphonate 2 g/d for 3 days + Etidronate 400 mg/d for next 14 days in a cyclic of 91 days
All groups Not reported 2 14%
Ibandronate
  Chesnut, 2004 [31] 2929 100% 69 G1: Ibandronate 2.5 mg/d, oral
G2: Ibandronate 20 mg alternate day for 12 doses every 3 months, oral
G3: PLC
All arms All arms 3 34%
  Recker, 2004 [32] 2860 100% 67 G1: Ibandronate 0.5 mg injection, every 3 months
G2: Ibandronate 1 mg injection, every 3 months
G2: PLC
All arms All arms 3 18%
Minodronate
  Matsumoto, 2009 [33] 704 100% 72 G1: Minodronate 1 mg/d
G2: PLC
Both groups Both groups 2 31%
Pamidronate
  Reid, 1994 [34] 61 100% 66 G1: Pamidronate 150 mg/d
G2: PLC
Both groups Not reported 2 79%
  Brumsen, 2002 [35] 101 100% 65 G1: Pamidronate 150 mg/d
G2: PLC
Both groups Both groups 3 10%
Calcitonin
  Peichl, 1999 [37] 42 100% 62 G1: Nasal salmon calcitonin 100 IU twice daily for 2 months with a pause of 2 months
G2: Control group
Both groups Only control groups 1 Not reported
  Hodsman, 1997 [38] 30 100% 67 G1: PTH sc injections 800 IU/d for 28 days in a cyclic of 90 days
G2: PTH sc injections 800 IU/d for 28 days + salmon calcitonin 75 U/d for 42 days in a cyclic of 90 days
Both groups Not prescribed 2 23%
  Chesnut, 2005 [39] 91 100% 67.4 G1: Calcitonin nasal spray 200 IU/d
G2: Placebo nasal spray
Both groups Not reported 2 78%
Hormone replace therapy
  Gutteridge, 2002 [40] 99 100% 69 G1: Fluoride
G2: Control group
G3: Fluoride + Estrogen 0.625 mg/d
G4: Estrogen 0.625 mg/d
All groups All groups 2.25 24%
  Wimalawansa, 1998 [41] 72 100% 65 G1: HRT group, Permarin 0.625 mg/d + norgestril 150 μg for 12 days each month
G2: Etidronate group, Etidronate 400 mg/d for 14 days each 12 week
G3: Combined therapy, combination of G1 and G2 with same dose
G4: control group
All groups All groups 4 17%
  Lufkin, 1992 [42] 75 100% 65 G1: Estrogen group, Estradiol 0.1 mg/d on the first 21 days + medroxyprogesterone acetate for the days 11 to 21 in a 28 days’ cycle
G2: Placebo
Both Not reported 1  
Parathyroid hormone
  Neer, 2001 [43] 1637 100% 71.0 G1: rhPTH 20 μg/d
G2: rhPTH 40 μg/d
G3: PLC
All groups All groups 2 6%
  Nakamura, 2012 [44] 578 100% 75.3 G1: Teriparatide 56.5 μg/w, sc injection
G2: PLC, sc injection
Both groups Both groups
400 IU/d
1.5 26%
  Greenspan, 2001a [46] 471 18.6% 64.4 G1: Teriparatide 100 μg/d, sc injection
G2: PLC
Both groups Both groups 1.5 33%
  Fujita, 2014 [45] 316 100% 71 G1: Teriparatide 28.2 μg/w, injection
G2: Teriparatide 1.4 μg/w, injection
Both groups Not prescribed 3 17%
Denosumab
  Nakamura, 2014 [48] 1262 100% 69.6 G1: Denosumab 60 mg/6 months, sc injection
G2: PLC
G3: Alendronate 35 mg/w
All groups All groups 3 13%
  Boonen, 2011 b [49] 759 100% 73.7 G1: Denosumab 60 mg/6 months, sc
G2: PLC
Both groups Both groups 3 18%
Romozumab
  Saag, 2017 [55] 4093 100% 74.3 G1: Alendronate: 70 mg/w
G2: Romosozumab: 210 mg/m sc injection
Both groups Both groups 3 11%
Raloxifene
  Ettinger, 1999 a [50] 2304 33.74% 68 G1: Raloxifene 60 mg/d
G2: Raloxifene 120 mg/d
G3: PLC
All groups All groups 3 23%
  Lufkin, 1998 [51] 143 100% 68 G1: Raloxifene 60 mg/d
G2: Raloxifene 120 mg/d
G3: PLC
All groups All groups 1 9%
Bazedoxifene
  Palacios, 2015 a [52] 3857 49.40% 67 G1: Bazedoxifene 60 mg/d
G2: Bazedoxifene 40 mg/d
G3: Bazedoxifene 20 mg/d
G4: PLC
All groups All groups 7 74%
Compare between medications
 Kushida, 2004 b [53] 547 100% 72 G1: Risedronate 2.5 mg/d
G2: Etidronate 200 mg/d cyclically
Both groups Not reported 2 21%
 Nakamura, 2013 [56] 1265 100% 72.7 G1: Ibandronate 0.5 mg injection per month
G2: Ibandronate 1 mg iv injection per month
G3: Risedronate 2.5 mg/d
All arms All arms 3 10%
 Hadji, 2012 [57] 710 100% 71 G1: Risedronate: 35 mg/w
G2: Teriparatide: 20 μg/w subcutaneous injection
Both groups Both groups 1.5 26%
 Kendler, 2017 [58] 1360 100% 72.1 G1: Risedronate 35 mg/w
G2: Teriparatite: 20 μg/d subcutaneous injection
Both groups Both groups 2 26%
  1. PLC Placebo, PTH Parathyroid hormone, ALD Alendronate
  2. aThe study included patients with and without fracture history, and only the data of patients with fracture history was analyzed
  3. bPost hoc analysis of previous data
  4. cData on the third year was pooled because the study design was changed to open-label and all participants in the fourth year received Etidronate