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Table 4 Literature regarding hip-spacer complications

From: Mechanical failure of articulating polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacers in two-stage revision hip arthroplasty: the risk factors and the impact on interim function

Study No. of patients Spacer type Spacer mechanical complications Overall Outcome after reimplantation
Duncan et al. (1993) [12] 13 PROSTALAC 3 dislocations 23% 1 allograft nonunion (8%)
1 loose Lord ring (8%)
2 heterotopic bones (15%)
Ivarsson et al. (1994) [26] 5 Hand-made 1 dislocation
1 subtrochanteric fracture
40%
Leunig et al. (1998) [18] 12 Hand-made 5 dislocations
1 spacer fracture
50%
Younger et al.(1998) [3] 29 (30 spacers) PROSTALAC 3 dislocations 10% 1 extrusion of cement into knee (3%)
1 recurrent infection (3%)
2 recurrent dislocations (7%)
2 allograft nonunions (7%)
1 loose Lord ring (3%)
3 prosthesis migrations (10%)
Magnan et al. (2001) [27] 10 Mold 1 dislocation 10%
Koo et al. (2001) [28] 22 Mold 1 femur iatrogenic fracture 5% 1 recurrent infection (5%)
2 peroneal nerve palsies (9%)
1 greater trochanteric non-union (5%)
3 heterotopic ossifications (14%)
Durbhakula et al. (2004) [14] 20 Mold 2 dislocations
2 spacer fractures
20%
Hsieh et al. (2004) [4] 58 Mold 2 dislocations
2 spacer fractures
7% 2 recurrent infections (3%)
1 dislocation (2%)
Jung et al. (2009) [13] 82 (88 spacers) Mold 15 spacer dislocations
9 spacer fractures
12 femoral fractures
40.9% 16 dislocations (23%)
Faschingbauer et al. (2015) [15] 138 93 mold
45 hand-made
12 dislocations
12 spacer fractures
1 femoral fracture
1 spacer fracture-dislocation
1 spacer protrusion into pelvis
19.5%
This study 35 Mold 6 dislocations
3 spacer fractures
1 spacer fracture-dislocation
4 femoral fractures
40% 3 recurrent infections
1 dislocation
1 greater trochanteric non-union