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Table 3 Comparison of PS and MF CSAs by spinal levels. PS, Psoas; MF, Multifidus; CSA, Cross-sectional area. All values are expressed a mean ± standard deviation. *** p< 0.001 indicates significant differences between groups

From: The correlation analysis between sagittal alignment and cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscle in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis

PS (mm2) P MF (mm2) P
   Overall Male Female Overall Male Female
  L3-L4 751.6 ± 300.5 964.3 ± 251.7 556.4 ± 188.4 *** 351.3 ± 113.1 402.6 ± 97.0 304.2 ± 106.7 ***
Left L4-L5 1001.3 ± 329.8 1237.0 ± 289.0 784.8 ± 185.1 *** 459.3 ± 148.6 542.3 ± 135.5 382.2 ± 115.5 ***
  L5-S1 882.1 ± 320.4 1080.8 ± 302.6 699.8 ± 209.2 *** 482.8 ± 153.7 551.5 ± 139.5 419.7 ± 139.0 ***
  L3-L4 790.0 ± 337.9 1038.5 ± 291.5 561.8 ± 179.8 *** 366.4 ± 113.4 422.8 ± 98.6 314.7 ± 101.2 ***
Right L4-L5 1010.3 ± 364.7 1282.9 ± 294.5 760.0 ± 211.2 *** 473.7 ± 144.3 549.9 ± 129.8 403.8 ± 120.1 ***
  L5-S1 905.0 ± 337.3 1112.5 ± 338.2 720.3 ± 203.3 *** 485.4 ± 149.0 558.0 ± 128.6 418.8 ± 135.3 ***
  L3-L4 770.8 ± 304.6 1001.4 ± 243.7 559.1 ± 172.6 *** 358.9 ± 106.6 412.7 ± 90.3 309.5 ± 96.5 ***
Ave L4-L5 1005.8 ± 333.9 1260.0 ± 266.5 772.4 ± 186.5 *** 464.9 ± 140.5 546.1 ± 123.7 390.4 ± 111.0 ***
  L5-S1 887.1 ± 319.5 1080.0 ± 319.2 710.0 ± 193.1 *** 484.1 ± 144.6 554.7 ± 126.4 419.2 ± 129.6 ***