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Table 2 Number of steps observed in the rotation angle-torque curve by complex failure, torque when the first step is observed, fracture torque, and fracture energy in Square group

From: Effects of femoral bone defect morphology on initial polished tapered stem stability in massive defect model: a biomechanical study

  Mean ± SD (95% CI)
Number of steps (specimens) 2 steps: 4, 3 steps: 1
Torque of the first step (Nm) 37.6 ± 5.7 (30.5 to 44.6)
Fracture torque (Nm) 74.0 ± 3.7 (69.4 to 78.6)
Fracture energy (J) 13.6 ± 2.0 (11.1 to 16.0)
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD with 95% confidence interval in parentheses.