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Table 1 Baseline clinical and perioperative characteristics of patients with or without pulmonary complication

From: Risk factors for pulmonary complications after posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion in the treatment of congenital scoliosis: a case-control study

Variables Overall Pulmonary complication No pulmonary complication P value
Number 323 45 278  
Age, years 17 (12–26) 26 (19–26) 15 (12–24) < 0.001
Gender, female, no. (%) 197 (61.0%) 35 (77.8%) 162 (58.3%) 0.013
BMI, Kg/m2 18.4 (15.9–20.4) 17.8 (16.2–20.4) 18.4 (15.9–20.4) 0.973
Duration since diagnosis of scoliosis, years 11 (8–20) 20 (13–24) 10 (7–17) < 0.001
Reoperation, no. (%) 41 (12.7%) 10 (22.2%) 31 (11.2%) 0.038
Preoperative pulmonary disease, no (%) 14 (4.3%) 9 (20.0%) 5 (1.8%) < 0.001
The main bending     0.006
 Thoracic scoliosis, no (%) 239 (74.0%) 42 (93.3%) 197 (70.9%)  
 Thoracolumbar scoliosis, no (%) 49 (15.2%) 2 (4.4%) 47 (16.9%)  
 Lumbar scoliosis, no (%) 35 (10.8%) 1 (2.2%) 34 (12.2%)  
Preoperative Cobb angle, degree 80.2 (57.3–103) 105.3 (88.3–122.3) 75 (55.2–97.7) < 0.001
Correction rate, % 64 (57.7–71.3) 67.4 (60.1–71.3) 63.7 (57.4–71.2) 0.078
Preoperative WBC, ×109/L 5.9 (5.1–7.1) 5.8 (5.0–6.9) 5.9 (5.1–7.1) 0.345
Preoperative neutrophil, % 53.3 (45.4–61.2) 55.4 (48.1–60.7) 53.1 (45.4–61.3) 0.540
ASA grade 2 (1–2) 2 (1–2) 2 (1–2) 0.886
Spinal osteotomy, no (%) 167 (51.7%) 26 (57.8%) 141 (50.7%) 0.379
No. of levels fused 12 (9–14) 13 (12–14) 12 (8–14) < 0.001
Upper thoracic screw-setting, no (%) 208 (64.4%) 40 (88.9%) 168 (60.4%) < 0.001
Middle thoracic screw-setting, no (%) 232 (71.8%) 44 (97.8%) 188 (67.6%) < 0.001
Lower thoracic screw-setting, no (%) 248 (76.8%) 41 (91.1%) 207 (74.5%) 0.014
Lumbar screw-setting, no (%) 291 (90.1%) 41 (91.1%) 250 (89.9%) 0.805
Thoracoplasty, no (%) 114 (35.3%) 33 (73.3%) 81 (29.1%) < 0.001
Operation time, min 240 (180–300) 285 (250–360) 232.5 (180–295) < 0.001
Volume of blood transfusion, ml 400 (0–400) 500 (0–800) 0 (0–400) < 0.001
Pulmonary function
 FEV1/FVC, % 85.4 (81.3–88.9) 83.8 (80.5–88.1) 85.5 (81.3–89.2) 0.130
 RV/TLC, % 36.8 (29.9–41.8) 38.8 (33.8–43.2) 36.4 (29.6–41.6) 0.038
  1. Value is expressed as the median (interquartile range) or number (percentage)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, WBC White blood count, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, No. Number, FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC Forced vital capacity, RV Residual volume, TLC Total lung capacity