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Table 2 Background characteristics of the participants by the study group

From: Neuromuscular exercise reduces low back pain intensity and improves physical functioning in nursing duties among female healthcare workers; secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial

  Pilates-type NME group (n = 110) Controls (no-exercise) (n = 109) Missing p-value
  % Mean (SD) % Mean (SD)   
Age, years   46.2 (6.8]   46.6 (6.8)   0.69
BMI   27.0 [4.7)   25.8 [4.0] 2 0.05
Smoking       0.60
 daily 15.5   17.4    
 occasionally 10.0   13.8    
 non-smoker 74.5   68.8    
Civil status: married/cohabiting 60.9   68.8    0.22
Education: secondary school or less 27.5   26.9   2 0.50
Occupation       0.31
 nurse 51.0   42.0    
 nursing assistant 39.0   42.0    
 other (PT, midwife, radiographer) 10.0   16.0    
Number of working years   11.9 [9.2)   10.7 [8.1) 2 0.25
Working times      1 0.66
 Regular work 32.0   29.0    
 shift work 68.0   71.0    
Perceived health      1 0.31
 average or below average 41.0   34.0    
 better or much better than average 59.0   66.0    
Perceived fitness in comparison to persons of the same age and gender      1 0.71
 lower or much lower 29.0   27.0    
 similar 47.0   53.0    
 higher or much higher 24.0   20.0    
Number of musculoskeletal pain sites   3.3 (1.2)   3.1 (1.4)   0.31
Depression; PHQ-9 (0–27)   7.9 [4.9)   7.0 (4.3) 1 0.14
High blood pressure: yes 15.5   12.0    0.46
Current use of medication: yes 52.7   57.9    0.44
  1. BMI body mass index, NME neuromuscular exercise, PHQ-9 modified Finnish version of the Patient Health Questionnaire, 9 items measuring depressive symptoms [69]