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Table 1 Subject characteristics and exclusion criteria of the study

From: Abdominal trunk muscle weakness and its association with chronic low back pain and risk of falling in older women

Characteristic
No. of subjects 38
Age (years), mean ± SD [range] 77.7 ± 4.2 [70–86]
Height (cm), mean ± SD [range] 148.1 ± 6.0 [137–160]
Weight (kg), mean ± SD [range] 50.5 ± 7.5 [35–67]
Body-mass index (kg/cm2), mean ± SD [range] 23.0 ± 3.3 [15.4–30.1]
Girth (cm), mean ± SD 79.7 ± 11.2 [58–110]
Musculoskeletal disorders treated at the outpatient clinic (no. of subjects) Chronic LBP (21),
Knee (22) and hip (3) arthritis, and Osteoporosis (14)
Exclusion criteria of the study
• They did not agree to participate in this trial.
• They did not have the ability to walk without support during their daily activities.
• They could not complete physical examinations conducted in the trial due to their musculoskeletal or medical disorders.
• They had acute LBP or mild chronic LBP (0 mm < VAS score for chronic LBP < 20 mm).
  1. SD standard deviation, LBP low back pain, VAS visual analog scale