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Table 5 Outcome measures after biomechanical anti-pronation taping

From: Can short-term effectiveness of anti-pronation taping predict the long-term outcomes of customized foot orthoses: developing predictors to identify characteristics of patients with plantar heel pain likely to benefit from customized foot orthoses

Variable All Subjects (n = 74) Success (n = 49) Nonsuccess (n = 25) p value
First-step pain NRS 3.0 ± 2.5 3.0 ± 2.7 3.1 ± 2.3 0.924
Change in first-step pain NRS −1.5 ± 2.2 −1.7 ± 2.4 −1.2 ± 1.7 0.395
Usual pain NRS 3.1 ± 2.0 2.9 ± 2.1 3.3 ± 1.6 0.438
Change in usual pain NRS −1.8 ± 1.9 −2.1 ± 2.0 − 1.1 ± 1.6 0.023*
PSFS 6.3 ± 1.8 6.4 ± 1.9 6.3 ± 1.6 0.812
Change in PSFS 1.8 ± 1.6 1.8 ± 1.5 1.8 ± 1.8 0.975
FFI 24.6 ± 19.8 23.3 ± 19.8 27.0 ± 20.1 0.462
Change in FFI −9.7 ± 14.8 −11.9 ± 15.6 −5.6 ± 12.3 0.082*
GROC 3.2 ± 1.9 3.4 ± .0 3.00 ± 1.8 0.456
  1. *p < 0.15
  2. NRS Numeric rating scale, PSFS Patient-specific functional scale, FFI Foot function index, GROC Global rating of changes
  3. Acquisition of change score of each variable is by subtracting the baseline value from the posttest value of each outcome measure after taping
  4. Data present as mean ± SD