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Table 2 JBI risk of bias quality assessment for cohort studies

From: Preoperative opioid use is associated with worse patient outcomes after Total joint arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Q1a Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 % yes Riskb
Zywiel et al. ? 55% Moderate
Smith et al. ? 55% Moderate
Franklin et al. ? 27% High
Pivec et al. ? ? 55% Moderate
Nguyen et al. ? ? 45% High
Goesling et al. ? 45% High
  1. Abbreviations
  2. JBI Joanna Briggs Institute
  3. aQ1 – Q11 indicate questions 1 to 11 based on the JBI risk assessment (Additional file 1: Appendix B).
  4. Notes
  5. bThe risk of bias was ranked as high when the study reached up to 49% of “yes” scores, moderate when the study reached from 50 to 69% of “yes” scores, and low when the study reached more than 70% of “yes” scores. ‘’ indicates yes, ‘✕’ indicates no and ‘?’ indicates unclear.