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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Preoperative opioid use is associated with worse patient outcomes after Total joint arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Year Country n Procedure Study Design Source of Patients Control of Confounding Factors Matched/Adjusted PRO Follow up
Zywiel et al. 2011 USA 90 TKA Retrospective Cohort Prospectively collected database at two institutions that specialize in lower extremity total joint arthroplasty Matching Center (exact match), procedure type (unilateral or bilateral procedure; exact match), sex (exact match), age (± 4 years) and BMI (± 4 kg/m2) KSS 38.5 months (mean)
Smith et al. 2017 USA 156 TKA Retrospective Cohort Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial evaluating motivational interviewing to enhance TKA outcomes Risk Adjustment Propensity Score (Pain Catastrophizing Scale score, Charlson Comorbidity Index and baseline WOMAC pain score), preoperative opioid use WOMAC 6 months
Franklin et al. 2010 USA 6346 TKA Retrospective Cohort Prospectively data on a national sample of primary, unilateral TKA patients sponsored by Zimmer, Inc., Warsaw between 2000 and 2005 None None KSS 12 months
Pivec et al. 2014 USA 108 THA Retrospective Cohort Prospectively collected database at two institutions that specialize in lower extremity total joint arthroplasty Matching Gender, Unilateral or bilateral total hip arthroplasty (exact), Age (±5 years), BMI (± 4 kg/m2), when possible: insurance type, tobacco use ≥0.5 packs per day, history of psychiatric disorders, history of back pain or surgery HSS 58 months (mean)
Nguyen et al. 2016 USA 82 TKA, THA Retrospective Cohort A single institution database Matching Primary diagnosis, affected joint (hip/knee), American Society of Anesthesiologists’ classification of physical health, sex, BMI (±10 kg/m2), age (±10), daily morphine equivalent group WOMAC 6–12 months
Goesling et al. 2016 USA 574 TKA, THA Retrospective Cohort Secondary analysis of data from a prospective outcome study in patients undergoing TKA and THA None None a WOMAC 6 months
  1. Abbreviations
  2. n number of patients included from study, PRO Patient-Reported Outcome, WOMAC The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, KSS Knee Society Score, HHS Harris Hip Score, TKA Total Knee Arthroplasty, THA Total Hip Arthroplasty, BMI Body Mass Index
  3. Notes
  4. aAdditional data provided that did not adjust for other patient factors