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Table 3 Group mean scores for the patients’ measures of muscle size and knee ROM across groups, for both limbs

From: Early initiation of home-based sensori-motor training improves muscle strength, activation and size in patients after knee replacement: a secondary analysis of a controlled clinical trial

Variable Group Pre-surgery 8 weeks 14 weeks Change over time (12 weeks)  
Limb   Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)   F p value ES %
ROM Flex (°) op. control 106.9 (9.2) 101.3 (6.6) 103.7 (6.9) −3.2 1.3 0.34 −2.9
non-op.   113.5 (10.5) 112.5 (9.0) 112.1 (8.5) −1.4    − 1.4
ROM Flex (°) op. experimental 105.1 (10.1) 104.4 (6.9) 107.3 (6.9) 2.2    0.02 2.2
non-op.   114.1 (9.8) 114.6 (9.0) 115.3(8.8) 1.2    0.01 1.0
ROM Ext (°) op. control −6.9 (5.2) −4.2 (2.7) −1.6 (0.9) 5.3 0.7 0.52 1.0 77
non-op.   −4.3 (4.1) −3.1 (3.3) −2.3 (1.5) 2.0    0.5 46
ROM Ext (°) op. experimental −6.0 (4.1) −2.7 (2.1) 0.2 (1.1) 5.8    1.4 97
non-op.   −2.3 (2.4) −1.5 (1.8) −0.7 (1.5) 1.6    0.6 68
CSAREL (mm2) op. control 422.1 (72.0) 497.8 (69.4) 564.0 (91.1) 141.9    2.0 34
non-op.   460.9 (71.4) 537.3 (78.0) 612.1 (98.7) 151.2    2.1 33
CSAREL (mm2) op. experimental 450.2 (69.6) 557.9 (77.4) 708.6 (111.2) 258.4 19.6 0.001** 3.7 57
non-op.   487.4 (64.1) 578.5 (73.9) 663.9 (73.7) 176.5    2.7 36
CSACONTR (mm2) op. control 338.1 (69.2) 433.0 (85.3) 494.8 (90.7) 156.7    2.3 46
non-op.   371.1 (66.9) 478.1 (80.4) 550.2 (94.9) 179.1    2.7 48
CSACONTR (mm2) op. experimental 343.1 (67.8) 463.4 (86.9) 595.1 (128.4) 252.0 11.3 0.001** 3.7 73
non-op.   401.2 (65.3) 496.7 (84.6.) 576.3 (81.4) 175.1    2.7 44
  1. p values signifies the statistical significance of the main interaction effect between the groups; ES: relative effect size, computed as (group mean score at 14 weeks – group mean score at pre-surgery)/pooled SD; op.: operated limb; non-op.: non-operated limb; ROM Ext: range of motion in extension; hypoextension = negative (−); hyperextension = positive; CSAREL: Cross-sectional area in rectus femoris in relaxation; CSACONTR: Cross-sectional area of rectus femoris in contraction; ** p < 0.001