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Table 2 Longitudinal changes of CSA (cm2) of the paraspinal and psoas muscles (mean ± SD)

From: Cross-sectional area of the paraspinal muscles and its association with muscle strength among fighter pilots: a 5-year follow-up

  Baseline Follow-up P a 95% CI
PS 3–4 (R) 31.3 (4.0) 33.7 (4.3) < 0.01** 1.6 to 3.2
PS 3–4 (L) 30.7 (3.3) 33.2 (3.5) < 0.01** 1.6 to 3.4
PS 4–5 (R) 28. 7 (3.8) 30.1 (4.2) < 0.01** 0.7 to 2.2
PS 4–5 (L) 28.5 (4.3) 30.9 (4.7) < 0.01** 1.5 to 3.3
Psoas 3–4 (R) 16.9 (3.4) 17.4 (3.3) 0.02* 0.1 to 0.9
Psoas 3–4 (L) 17.4 (3.6) 17.7 (3.5) 0.27 0.3 to 0.9
Psoas 4–5 (R) 21.0 (3.2) 21.8 (3.9) 0.07 0.1 to 1.6
Psoas 4–5 (L) 21.5 (3.2) 22.2 (3.4) 0.05 0.1 to 1.3
  1. CSA Cross-sectional area, PS Paraspinal muscles, R right, L left; aANOVA
  2. for repeated measures, (Wilks’ Lambda) was used to obtain P values; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01