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Table 3 Outcome measures at six weeks after completion of trial in retro walking, forward walking, and control groups (Intention-to-treat analysis, n = 68)

From: Effect of 6-week retro or forward walking program on pain, functional disability, quadriceps muscle strength, and performance in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial (retro-walking trial)

Variables Retro walking (RW) group Forward walking (FW) group Control group (CG) ANOVA Post hoc analysis (Bonferroni)
Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean changes Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean changes Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean changes F p RW vs. FW RW vs. CG FW vs. CG
NRS 3.9 (1.1) 3.4, 4.3 1.8 4.6 (1.3) 3.9, 5.2 1.5 4.8 (0.8) 4.5, 5.2 1 4.584 0.014* 0.10 0.01† 0.94
WOMAC (%) 48.1 (3.4) 46.6, 49.6 4.8 50.2 (4.2) 48.4, 52.1 3.1 51.6 (3.6) 49.9, 53.2 2.2 4.941 0.010* 0.16 0.008† 0.74
Quadriceps muscle strength (kg) 12.8 (1.9) 11.8, 13.6 1.7 12 (1.7) 11.3, 12.7 0.96 10.9 (2.3) 9.9, 11.9 0.7 4.854 0.011* 0.549 0.008† 0.241
TUG (sec) 8.8 (0.5) 8.6, 9.1 0.6 9.1 (0.3) 8.9, 9.3 0.2 9.2 (0.3) 9.1, 9.4 0.1 6.171 0.004* 0.06 0.003† 0.89
  1. ANOVA analysis of variance, NRS numerical rating scale, WOMAC Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, TUG timed up and go test, CI Confidence interval, SD Standard deviation
  2. *p < 0.05. †p (adjusted) < 0.017