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Table 2 The perioperative and postoperative characteristics between the knees with late and early PMDI administration

From: Timing of periarticular injection has no effect on postoperative pain and functional recovery in simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized, double-blinded trial

Parameters Late PMDI Early PMDI Z P-value
Operative duration (min) 65.9 (62.9–68.9) 66.8 (63.3–70.3) −0.73 0.47
Drain output (mL)
 24 h 182.7 (140.3–225.1) 156.4 (112.9–199.9) −1.49 0.14
 48 h 137.7 (93.0–182.4) 136.1 (93.0–179.2) −0.38 0.71
VAS at rest
 6 h 3.2 (1.9–4.5) 2.9 (1.9–3.9) −1.16 0.25
 12 h 3.4 (2.3–4.5) 3.2 (2.2–4.2) −0.79 0.43
 24 h 3.6 (2.7–4.5) 3.8 (2.8–4.8) −0.44 0.66
 48 h 3.2 (2.3–4.1) 3.6 (2.8–4.4) −1.83 0.07
 72 h 2.8 (2.0–3.6) 3.0 (2.2–3.8) −0.79 0.43
 96 h 2.2 (1.5–2.9) 2.4 (1.9–2.9) −0.93 0.35
 2 weeks 2.7 (1.8–3.6) 3.0 (2.2–3.8) −1.20 0.23
 6 weeks 1.6 (0.9–2.3) 1.9 (1.1–2.7) −1.12 0.26
Degrees of knee flexion using CPM
 24 h 53.8 (45.7–61.9) 53.2 (45.1–110.0) −0.55 0.59
 48 h 74.2 (66.1–82.3) 72.8 (63.6–82.0) −1.22 0.22
 72 h 83.3 (78.2–88.4) 81.7 (76.0–87.4) −1.46 0.15
 96 h 87.2 (80.4–94.0) 87.2 (80.4–94.0) −0.19 0.85
Degrees of active knee flexion
 2 weeks 105.8 (99.3–112.3) 104.3 (96.0–112.6) −0.21 0.84
 6 weeks 115.7 (111.0–120.4) 114.4 (109.4–119.4) −1.53 0.13
Degrees of straight leg raising (SLR)
 48 h 30.8 (16.0–45.6) 31.6 (16.6–46.6) −0.54 0.59
 72 h 32.2 (18.6–45.8) 33.6 (20.1–47.1) −0.32 0.75
 96 h 34.0 (20.1–47.9) 36.2 (22.3–50.1) −0.57 0.57
 2 weeks 42.2 (27.3–57.1) 43.6 (27.4–59.8) −0.03 0.97
 6 weeks 55.0 (38.4–71.6) 53.2 (35.5–70.9) −0.64 0.52
Degrees of extension lag (EL)
 48 h 21.3 (17.8–24.8) 20.5 (16.3–24.7) −0.57 0.57
 72 h 19.6 (16.2–23.0) 19.3 (15.4–23.2) −0.46 0.65
 96 h 15.3 (11.7–18.9) 14.7 (11.2–18.2) −0.73 0.47
 2 weeks 14.9 (12.2–17.6) 15.4 (12.3–18.5) −0.29 0.77
 6 weeks 7.1 (4.7–9.5) 7.0 (4.8–9.2) −0.36 0.72
  1. All parameters are presented as mean and 95% confidence interval (CI)
  2. Late PMDI, the knees injected with the PMDI before prosthetic implantation as common practice of surgeons
  3. Early PMDI, the knees injected with the PMDI after arthrotomy to prevent neural hypersensitization caused by further soft tissue and bone work during TKA