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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by study group

From: Multisite musculoskeletal pain in migrants from the Indian subcontinent to the UK: a cross-sectional survey

Characteristic UK white UK of Indian subcontinental origin India
  Non-manual
(n = 172)
Manual
(n = 159)
Non-manual
(n = 67)
Manual
(n = 73)
Non-manual
(n = 165)
Manual
(n = 178)
Age (years)
 17–24 34 (20%) 13 (8%) 20 (30%) 19 (26%) 70 (42%) 5 (3%)
 24–34 37 (22%) 42 (26%) 34 (51%) 21 (29%) 75 (45%) 23 (13%)
 35–44 44 (26%) 51 (32%) 7 (10%) 24 (33%) 19 (12%) 46 (26%)
 45–63 57 (33%) 53 (33%) 6 (9%) 9 (12%) 1 (1%) 104 (58%)
Sex
 Male 93 (54%) 82 (52%) 53 (79%) 45 (62%) 118 (72%) 177 (99%)
 Female 79 (46%) 77 (48%) 14 (21%) 28 (38%) 47 (28%) 1 (1%)
Mental health
 Good 48 (28%) 28 (18%) 15 (22%) 18 (25%) 50 (30%) 85 (48%)
 Intermediate 57 (33%) 58 (36%) 27 (40%) 18 (25%) 56 (34%) 68 (38%)
 Poor 67 (39%) 73 (46%) 25 (37%) 37 (51%) 59 (36%) 25 (14%)
Occupational activities in an average working day
 Use keyboard ≥4 h 137 (80%) 4 (3%) 44 (66%) 0 (0%) 163 (99%) 3 (2%)
 Other repeated movements of wrist/hand ≥4 h 4 (2%) 147 (92%) 0 (0%) 69 (95%) 23 (14%) 171 (96%)
 Repeated bending/straightening of elbow for > 1 h in total 81 (47%) 140 (88%) 40 (60%) 68 (93%) 88 (53%) 163 (92%)
 Work with hand above shoulder height > 1 h in total 2 (1%) 60 (38%) 1 (1%) 27 (37%) 8 (5%) 68 (38%)
 Work with neck twisted > 30 min in total 19 (11%) 67 (42%) 11 (16%) 31 (42%) 40 (24%) 82 (46%)
 Lifting ≥5 kg one-handed 5 (3%) 53 (33%) 4 (6%) 30 (41%) 8 (5%) 136 (76%)
Psychosocial aspects of work
 Incentives 103 (60%) 8 (5%) 50 (75%) 5 (7%) 16 (10%) 4 (2%)
 Time pressure 69 (40%) 118 (74%) 23 (34%) 54 (74%) 129 (78%) 170 (96%)
 Support 166 (97%) 157 (99%) 65 (97%) 72 (99%) 162 (98%) 175 (98%)
 Choice 89 (52%) 112 (70%) 27 (40%) 53 (73%) 145 (88%) 32 (18%)