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Table 4 Baseline values for the hip and ankle outcome measures at the preferred walking pace. The last row reports the p-values and cohen’s d effect size for post-hoc pairwise comparisons with p < 0.1 and d > 0.4

From: Gait mechanics contribute to exercise induced pain flares in knee osteoarthritis

  Hip Angle
(deg)
Ankle Angles
(deg)
Hip Moments
(% BW * Ht)
Ankle Moments
(% BW * Ht)
  Heel-strike flexion Flexion ROM Flexion ROM Peak Eversion Flexion Extension 1st Adduction PlantarFlexion Dorsi-Flexion Eversion
Pain Flare 43.70 42.06 26.19 2.56 −4.40 3.84 −5.52 1.75 −7.99 0.84
 SE 1.77 3.10 2.29 1.33 0.70 0.37 0.53 0.13 0.61 0.29
No Flare 38.28 45.78 28.78 6.05 −3.20 4.10 −5.73 1.22 −8.58 0.58
 SE 2.00 2.16 2.24 1.09 0.37 0.22 0.31 0.11 0.26 0.10
Control 34.51 47.37 29.91 4.03 −4.53 5.41 −6.74 1.91 −8.90 0.55
 SE 2.01 1.11 1.16 0.76 0.27 0.31 0.21 0.18 0.26 0.08
p-value/effect size
 PF Vs C       p < 0.001, d = 1.10 p < 0.001, d = 1.08    
 NP vs C      p < 0.001 d = 0.77 p < 0.001, d = 0.90 p < 0.001, d = 1.02    
 PF vs NF         p = 0.04 d = 1.40