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Table 5 Healing index in previous comparative studies demonstrating the efficacy of LIPUS stimulation during tibial lengthening

From: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances callus consolidation in distraction osteogenesis of the tibia by the technique of lengthening over the nail procedure

Article Type of external fixation Gain of length (cm) Timing of LIPUS Treatment time Group Total no. of segments Age at operation (yrs) Healing index
(d/cm) P value
El-Mowafi and Mohsen [24] Ilizarov 6.1 (5 to 8) Consolidation period 20 min/day LIPUS 10 35 (18 to 45) 30 (27 to 36) <  0.001
control 9 48 (42 to 75)
Dudda et al. [25]† Regazzoni (23) Ilizarov (6) Hybrid type (7) 6.6 (2.5 to 14.0) 20 min/day LIPUS 16 34.9 (17 to 64) 32.8 ± 13.1 0.116
control 20 42.4 (16 to 69) 44.6 ± 26.8
Salem and Schmelz [26] Ilizarov 7.9 Distraction and consolidation period 20 min/day LIPUS 12 32 33
control 9 29 45
Current study‡ Lengthening over nail 7.9 (5.0 to 10.5) Distraction and early consolidation period 20 min/day LIPUS 30 22.1 (17 to 34) 36.6 (21.7 to 51.6) < 0.001
control 30 20.6 (17 to 25) 57.5 (32.5 to 64.8)
  1. LIPUS, Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound
  2. * Data presented in the parenthesis mean range
  3. † The authors measured external fixation index instead of healing index
  4. ‡ Healing index at the last consolidated cortex among the four cortices