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Table 3 Comparison of callus shape and type according to Li et al. [27] between the two groups

From: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances callus consolidation in distraction osteogenesis of the tibia by the technique of lengthening over the nail procedure

Classification At the end of distraction phase At the time of ex-fix removal
LIPUS group (N = 30) Control group (N = 30) P-value* LIPUS group (N = 30) Control group (N = 30) P-value*
Callus shape    0.005    0.055
 Fusiform 0 0   4 3  
 Cylindrical 19 13   23 15  
 Concave 11 8   3 10  
 Lateral 0 9   0 2  
 Central 0 0   0 0  
Callus type    <  0.001    0.313
 Normal-density 0 0   30 29  
 Intermediate-density 24 4   0 1  
 Low-density 6 26   0 0  
  1. LIPUS, Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound
  2. * Fisher’s exact test