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Table 1 Demographic data of patients undergoing bilateral tibial lengthening

From: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances callus consolidation in distraction osteogenesis of the tibia by the technique of lengthening over the nail procedure

Variable LIPUS group Control group P-value
Number of patients 15 15  
Number of tibial segments 30 30  
Sex (M:F) (number of tibia) 24:6 25:5 1.000†
Age at operation (years)* 22.1 (17.5 to 34.0) 20.6 (17.9 to 25.4) 0.155‡
Preoperative height (cm)* 165.4 (153 to 174) 163.2 (147 to 173) 0.073‡
BMI (kg/m2)* 21.7 (17.2 to 26.2) 21.8 (17.4 to 27.8) 0.941‡
Smoking history (smoker: nonsmoker) (number of tibia) 2:28 4:26 0.671†
Follow-up (years)* 5.3 (1.7 to 8.2) 5.8 (3.9 to 7.8) 0.790‡
  1. LIPUS, Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound
  2. *Values are expressed as mean, with range in parentheses
  3. † Fisher’s exact test, ‡ Mann-Whitney test