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Fig. 2 | BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders

Fig. 2

From: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances callus consolidation in distraction osteogenesis of the tibia by the technique of lengthening over the nail procedure

Fig. 2

Sequential radiographic images of the left tibia in a 19-year-old female patient without low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation after 8.1 cm of tibial lengthening. At the end of the distraction phase, the anteroposterior (AP) (a) and lateral (b) images show a callus with a cylindrical shape and low density. At the time of external fixator removal, the AP (c) and lateral (d) images show progression of callus consolidation with a cylindrical shape and intermediate density. The external fixation index of the patient was 29.4 days/cm. At 17 months postoperation, the AP (e) and lateral (f) images show full corticalization of the regenerated callus

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