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Table 3 Health-related quality of life (RAND-36) outcomes at baseline, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months according to treatment group, within group differences and between group comparisons of difference from baseline to 12 months

From: Correction of leg-length discrepancy among meat cutters with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

Outcome measure Mean (SD) crude scores Difference between baseline and 12 months (95% CI) repeated measures regression1 Treatment difference (95% CI) repeated measures regression1
Intervention Control Intervention Control
Physical functioning
 Baseline 78.8 (13.6) 82.0 (12.8)    
 3 months 85.8 (10.3) 83.0 (13.6)    
 6 months 88.0 (8.8) 82.8 (10.3)    
 12 months 89.3 (8.0) 83.0 (13.2) 10.5 (4.8 to 16.2) 0.9 (−4.7 to 6.6) 9.6 (1.6 to 17.6)
Role-physical (NB)
 Baseline 60.0 (40.9) 66.3 (34.7)    
 3 months 72.5 (26.8) 67.5 (35.4)    
 6 months 78.8 (29.6) 70.0 (29.9)    
 12 months 91.3 (18.6) 68.8 (37.1) 32.7 (−11.3 to 76.8) 1.3 (−38.0 to 40.5) 31.5 (−27.5 to 90.5)
Role-emotional (NB)
 Baseline 81.7 (35.0) 90.0 (26.7)    
 3 months 93.3 (13.7) 88.3 (27.1)    
 6 months 93.3 (23.2) 90.0 (21.9)    
 12 months 96.7 (10.3) 91.7 (18.3) 14.9 (−8.6 to 38.5) 1.7 (−22.3 to 25.8) 13.2 (−20.4 to 46.9)
Energy/fatigue
 Baseline 65.0 (16.9) 73.5 (18.8)    
 3 months 66.8 (17.0) 73.3 (18.7)    
 6 months 75.5 (14.4) 69.3 (14.5)    
 12 months 72.3 (11.8) 75.5 (13.2) 7.1 (2.0 to 12.2) 2.0 (−3.3 to 7.3) 5.1 (−2.2 to 12.5)
Mental health
 Baseline 74.8 (17.8) 81.4 (15.0)    
 3 months 75.6 (16.9) 77.6 (16.9)    
 6 months 78.8 (14.4) 79.8 (11.8)    
 12 months 79.0 (12.3) 79.6 (13.2) 4.2 (−1.3 to 9.6) −1.8 (−7.4 to 3.8) 6.0 (−1.8 to 13.7)
Social functioning
 Baseline 81.3 (18.4) 74.4 (16.5)    
 3 months 83.1 (18.7) 80.0 (14.2)    
 6 months 84.4 (19.8) 76.3 (9.0)    
 12 months 92.5 (13.7) 85.0 (13.8) 11.1 (5.3 to 16.8) 10.7 (5.1 to 16.2) 0.4 (−7.6 to 8.4)
Bodily pain (NB)
 Baseline 54.6 (17.2) 53.9 (22.4)    
 3 months 59.8 (15.1) 58.6 (20.3)    
 6 months 63.0 (12.8) 59.6 (23.1)    
 12 months 73.5 (17.1) 60.3 (21.0) 18.7 (4.7 to 32.7) 6.5 (−5.9 to 19.0) 12.2 (−6.6 to 30.1)
General health (NB)
 Baseline 55.5 (16.0) 64.0 (24.5)    
 3 months 61.8 (15.7) 60.5 (21.3)    
 6 months 61.8 (15.1) 61.5 (22.2)    
 12 months 63.8 (17.0) 57.3 (24.0) 8.6 (2.2 to 15.1) −6.5 (−11.3 to − 1.7) 15.2 (6.1 to 24.2)
  1. LLD leg length discrepancy, LBP low back pain, NB negative binomial model, 95% CI 95% confidence interval. Bold denotes significance
  2. 1Adjusted by age, BMI, gender and smoking