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Table 3 Univariable logistic regression of chronic back pain and multivariable logistic regression of chronic back pain, adjusted for significantly associated covariates

From: Factors associated with chronic and acute back pain in Wales, a cross-sectional study

  Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
N Crude OR (95% CI) P value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P value
WIMD 2014 quintile 14,351     
 Least deprived  
 2   1.35 (1.14, 1.60) 0.001 1.32 (1.09, 1.60) 0.005
 3   1.48 (1.26, 1.75) < 0.001 1.33 (1.10, 1.61) 0.003
 4   1.70 (1.43, 2.01) < 0.001 1.42 (1.16, 1.72) < 0.001
 Most deprived   2.04 (1.72, 2.42) < 0.001 1.61 (1.32, 1.96) < 0.001
Age 14,351     
 16–24  
 25–44   2.83 (2.06, 3.89) < 0.001 2.42 (1.71, 3.42) < 0.001
 45–64   6.17 (4.55, 8.35) < 0.001 5.14 (3.69, 7.15) < 0.001
 65+   9.16 (6.76, 12.41) < 0.001 7.34 (5.25, 10.26) < 0.001
Gender 14,351     
 Male  
 Female   1.44 (1.30, 1.59) < 0.001 1.43 (1.27, 1.61) < 0.001
Educational attainment 13,424     
 No qualification  
 Degree equivalent or higher   0.21 (0.17, 0.25) < 0.001 0.44 (0.36, 0.55) < 0.001
 Other qualifications   0.41 (0.36, 0.46) < 0.001 0.75 (0.65, 0.86) < 0.001
BMIa 13,391     
 Less than 18.5- Underweight   0.77 (0.49, 1.21) 0.258 0.91 (0.55,1.48) 0.699
 18.5 to under 25- Normal weight  
 25 to under 30- Overweight   1.34 (1.18, 1.52) < 0.001 1.20 (1.04, 1.38) 0.013
 30 and over- Obese   2.15 (1.88, 2.45) < 0.001 1.60 (1.38, 1.85) < 0.001
Mental health (SF-36) 14,351     
 Above averageb  
 Below averagec   3.41 (3.08, 3.79) < 0.001 3.11 (2.76, 3.51) < 0.001
Light exercise 14,014     
 0–2 days per week  
 3–5 days   0.43 (0.37, 0.49) < 0.001 0.58 (0.49, 0.69) < 0.001
 6–7 days   0.39 (0.35, 0.43) < 0.001 0.55 (0.48, 0.63) < 0.001
  1. aBody mass index
  2. bMental health score above the average of the general population
  3. cMental health score below the average of the general population