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Table 2 Univariable logistic regression of acute back pain and multivariable logistic regression of acute back pain, adjusted for significantly associated covariates

From: Factors associated with chronic and acute back pain in Wales, a cross-sectional study

  Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
N Crude OR (95% CI) P value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P value
WIMD 2014 quintile 14,359     
 Least deprived   Reference category
 2   1.05 (0.94, 1.17) 0.405 1.03 (0.92, 1.16) 0.611
 3   1.03 (0.93, 1.15) 0.539 1.00 (0.89, 1.13) 0.940
 4   1.00 (0.89, 1.12) 0.958 0.93 (0.82, 1.05) 0.261
 Most deprived   0.91 (0.81, 1.03) 0.138 0.86 (0.76, 0.98) 0.029
Age 14,359     
 16–24   Reference category
 25–44   1.69 (1.49, 1.93) < 0.001 1.64 (1.42, 1.90) < 0.001
 45–64   1.84 (1.62, 2.09) < 0.001 1.73 (1.50, 1.99) < 0.001
 65+   1.44 (1.26, 1.65) < 0.001 1.49 (1.27, 1.73) < 0.001
Gender 14,359     
 Male   Reference category
 Female   1.08 (1.00, 1.16) 0.040 1.01 (0.94, 1.10) 0.761
Educational attainment 13,398     
 No qualification   Reference category
 Degree equivalent or higher   1.21 (1.07, 1.36) 0.002 1.28 (1.12, 1.47) < 0.001
 Other qualifications   1.22 (1.11, 1.34) < 0.001 1.32 (1.18, 1.47) < 0.001
BMIa 13,387     
 Less than 18.5   0.65 (0.49, 0.87) 0.004 0.79 (0.58, 1.07) 0.127
 18.5 to under 25   Reference category
 25 to under 30   1.20 (1.11, 1.31) < 0.001 1.14 (1.04, 1.25) 0.004
 30 and over   1.33 (1.21, 1.46) < 0.001 1.20 (1.08, 1.33) 0.001
Mental health (SF-36) 14,359     
 Above averageb   Reference category
 Below averagec   1.60 (1.49, 1.72) < 0.001 1.59 (1.47, 1.72) < 0.001
Vigorous exercise 13,757     
 0–2 days per week   Reference category
 3–5 days   0.83 (0.73, 0.94) 0.03 0.91 (0.80, 1.03) 0.156
 6–7 days   0.83 (0.68, 1.02) 0.077 0.91 (0.74, 1.13) 0.406
  1. aBody mass index
  2. bMental health score above the average of the general population
  3. cMental health score below the average of the general population