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Table 1 Selected characteristics of the studies included in this systematic review and meta-analysis

From: The systematic review and meta-analysis of X-ray detective rate of Kashin-Beck disease from 1992 to 2016

Study Year Areas Case(n) Total(n) X-ray detective rate (%)[95%CI] Age (year) Study QS Comprehensive Preventive Measures
Zhang et al. 2005 Heilongjiang (NE) 270 1699 15.89(14.15,17.63) 7–12 Rep 10 1.Changing grain; 2. Supplemental Se
Su et al. 2012 Jilin (NE) 8 742 1.08 (0.34,1.82) 7–12 Rep 10 1.Changing grain; 2.water improvement
Tao et al. 2012 Inner Mongolia (NE) 54 929 5.81 (4.31,7.32) 7–12 Rep 9  
Xun et al. 2009 Inner Mongolia (NE) 397 2281 17.40 (15.85,18.96) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Changing grain; 2. Changing dietary patterns; 3.Improved economic conditions; 4. water improvement
Xun et al. 2007 Inner Mongolia (NE) 67 871 7.69 (5.92,9.46) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Changing grain;
Yuan et al. 1998 Inner Mongolia (NE) 297 863 34.41 (31.24,37.58) 7–13 Rep 9  
Yuan et al. 1998 Inner Mongolia (NE) 386 1693 22.80 (20.8,24.8) 7–13 Rep 9 1. Changing grain; 2. Supplemental Se
Liu et al. 2001 Inner Mongolia (NE) 172 2498 6.89 (5.89,7.88) 7–13 Pro 10 1. Changing grain
Zhang et al. 1995 Inner Mongolia (NE) 308 687 44.83 (41.11,48.55) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Changing grain
Zhou et al. 2013 Beijing (NE) 25 2055 1.22 (0.74,1.69) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Changing grain; 2. Changing dietary patterns; 3. Improved economic conditions; 4. Collective relocation
Wang et al. 2011 Beijing (NE) 576 5935 9.70 (8.95,10.46)   Rep 8 1. Changing dietary patterns; 2.Improved economic conditions; 3. Collective relocation
Chen et al. 2011 Shandong (NE) 41 3091 1.33 (0.92,1.73) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Water improvement
Yu et al. 2011 Henan (NE) 17 1928 0.88 (0.46,1.30) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se; 2. Changing grain
Yu et al. 2001 Henan (NE) 200 567 35.27 (31.34,39.21) 3–7 Pro 8 1. Supplemental Se
Yang et al. 1994 Henan (NE) 4 155 2.58 (0.08, 5.08) 7–12 Rep 8 1. Supplemental Se
Wang et al. 2011 Shaanxi (NW) 49 259 18.92 (14.15,23.69) 7–16 Rep 9 1. Changing dietary patterns; 2. Supplemental Se; 3. Improved economic conditions
He et al. 2010 Shaanxi (NW) 32 355 9.01 (6.03,12.00) 6–13 Rep 9 1. Changing dietary patterns; 2. Water improvement; 3. Improved economic conditions
Xie et al. 2010 Shaanxi (NW) 1 505 0.20(−0.19,0.59) 7–12 Pro 10 1. Changing grain; 2. Water improvement; 3. Collective relocation
Xie et al. 2008 Shaanxi (NW) 2 610 0.33(−0.13, 0.78) 7–13 Pro 10 1. Changing dietary patterns; 2. Supplemental Se; 3. Water improvement; 4. Improved economic conditions
Lv et al. 2009 Shaanxi (NW) 37 8747 0.42 (0.29, 0.56) 7–13 Rep 10 1. Changing dietary patterns; 2. Supplemental Se; 3. Water improvement; 4. Improved economic conditions; 5. Returning farmland to forest
Xu et al. 2004 Shaanxi (NW) 69 3059 2.26 (1.73, 2.78) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se; 2. Water improvement; 3. Collective relocation
Cao et al. 2004 Shaanxi (NW) 151 944 16.00 (13.66, 18.33) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se
Yang et al. 2005 Shaanxi (NW) 4 110 3.64 (0.14, 7.13) 7–12 Rep 9 1. Changing grain
Wang et al. 2001 Shaanxi (NW) 60 524 11.45 (8.72, 14.18) 7–12 Rep 9 1. Supplemental Se
Chen et al. 2004 Shaanxi (NW) 26 840 3.09 (1.92, 4.27) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Changing grain; 2. Supplemental Se; 3.Water improvement
Sun et al. 1992 Shaanxi (NW) 299 970 30.82 (27.92, 33.73) 3–13 Rep 9 1. Supplemental Se
Xu et al. 2009 Shaanxi (NW) 487 2844 17.12 (15.74, 18.51) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se
Xie et al. 2011 Shaanxi (NW) 38 2248 1.69 (1.16, 2.22) 7–12 Pro 10 1. Supplemental Se
Lv et al. 2002 Shaanxi (NW) 441 3324 13.27 (12.11, 14.42) 6–13 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se; 2.Water improvement
Zhang et al. 2002 Shaanxi (NW) 500 2107 23.73 (21.91, 25.55) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se
Yi et al. 2016 Shaanxi (NW) 6 1744 0.34 (0.07, 0.62) 7–12 Rep 9 1. Changing grain; 2. Water improvement
Cui et al. 2013 Gansu (NW) 83 2254 3.68 (2.90, 4.46) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se
Ge et al. 2008 Gansu (NW) 345 4367 7.90 (7.10, 8.70) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se
Liu et al. 2007 Gansu (NW) 56 567 9.88 (7.42, 12.33) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se; 2. Changing grain
Zhang et al. 2014 Gansu (NW) 31 1019 3.04 (1.99, 4.10) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se
Bai et al. 2002 Gansu (NW) 484 802 60.22 (56.83, 63.61) 3–13 Pro 10 1. Supplemental Se
Luo et al. 2012 Gansu (NW) 21 610 3.44 (2.00, 4.89) 7–14 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se
Li et al. 2004 Qinghai (NW) 383 1194 32.08 (29.43, 34.72) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se; 2. Water improvement
Ding et al. 2001 Qinghai (NW) 566 1290 43.88 (41.68, 46.58) 7–12 Rep 9  
Ding et al. 2003 Qinghai (NW) 291 1446 20.12 (18.06, 22.19) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Water improvement; 2. Supplemental Se; 3. Changing dietary patterns
Li et al. 2006 Qinghai (NW) 2228 5122 43.50 (42.14, 44.86) 7–12 Rep 9 1. Water improvement; 2. Supplemental Se
Bao et al. 1998 Qinghai (NW) 195 436 44.72 (40.06, 49.39) 7–12 Rep 10  
Li et al. 2002 Qinghai (NW) 168 407 41.28 (36.49, 46.06) 7–12 Rep 10  
Zhao et al. 2016 Tibet (SW) 1388 43,034 3.23 (3.06, 3.39) 7–12 Rep 9 1. Supplemental Se; 2. Changing grain; 3. Collective relocation; 4. Improved economic conditions
Zhao et al. 2011 Tibet (SW) 15 431 3.48 (1.75, 5.21) 7–12 Pro 10  
Gong et al. 2004 Tibet (SW) 73 611 11.95 (9.38, 14.52) 4–12 Pro 10 1. Supplemental Se
A et al. 2015 Sichuan (SW) 182 14,189 1.28 (1.10, 1.47) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se
Wang et al. 2005 Sichuan (SW) 551 3149 17.50 (16.17, 18.82) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se
Zhang et al. 2009 Sichuan (SW) 24 1243 1.93 (1.17, 2.70) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se; 2. Changing dietary patterns
Li et al. 2003 Sichuan (SW) 314 1600 19.63 (17.68, 21.57) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se; 2. Changing dietary patterns
Deng et al. 2008 Sichuan (SW) 675 8689 7.77 (7.21, 8.33) 7–13 Rep 10 1. Improved economic conditions; 2. Changing dietary patterns
Hunag et al. 2010 Sichuan (SW) 373 13,472 2.77 (2.49, 3.05) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Supplemental Se; 2. Collective relocation; 3. Changing grain
Deng et al. 1999 Sichuan (SW) 569 2224 25.58 (23.77, 27.40) 7–12 Rep 10 1. Improved economic conditions
  1. QS: quality score; Rep: retrospective cohort study; Pro: prospective cohort study. NE: northeast; NW: northwest; SW: southwest