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Table 5 Prevalence of specific postural defects among 8- to 12-year-old children, stratified according to the IOTF cut-offs for BMI

From: Relationship between lower-extremity defects and body mass among polish children: a cross-sectional study

Deformities Normal weight (n = 4730) Severe underweight (n = 23) Moderate underweight (n = 126) Mild underweight (n = 749) Overweight (n = 1140) Obesity (n = 224)
  n % 95% CI n % 95% CI n % 95% CI n % 95% CI n % 95% CI n % 95% CI
Limb deformities overall 1217 25.7 24.5–27.0 6 26.1 10.2–48.4 19 15.1 9.3–22.5 113 15.1 12.6–17.8 644 56.5 53.4–59.4 202 90.2 87.6–95.2
 Varus knee 8 0.2 0.1–0.4 0 0.0 0.0–14.8 2 1.6 0.2–5.6 3 0.4 0.1–1.2 0 0.0 0.0–0.3 1 0.4 0.0–2.5
 Valgus knee 295 6.2 5.5–6.9 2 8.7 1.1–28.0 0 0.0 0.0–2.9 3 0.4 0.1–1.2 524 46.0 43.0–48.9 193 86.2 80.9–90.4
 Valgus heel 1021 21.6 20.4–22.8 6 26.1 10.2–48.4 18 14.3 8.7–21.6 107 14.3 11.9–17.0 305 26.8 24.3–29.5 69 30.8 24.8–37.3
 Flatfoot overall 185 3.9 3.4–4.5 1 4.3 0.1–21.9 0 0.0 0.0–2.9 9 1.2 0.6–2.3 99 8.7 7.1–10.5 38 17.0 12.3–22.5
 I degree 81 1.7 1.3–2.1 0 0.0 0.0–14.8 0 0.0 0.0–2.9 4 0.5 0.1–1.4 49 4.3 3.2–5.6 15 6.7 3.8–10.8
 II degree 66 1.4 1.1–1.8 1 4.3 0.1–21.9 0 0.0 0.0–2.9 3 0.4 0.1–1.2 42 3.7 2.7–4.9 11 4.9 2.5–8.6
 III degree 32 0.7 0.5–1.0 0 0.0 0.0–14.8 0 0.0 0.0–2.9 2 0.3 0.0–1.0 8 0.7 0.3–1.4 11 4.9 2.5–8.6
 IV degree 6 0.1 0.0–0.3 0 0.0 0.0–14.8 0 0.0 0.0–2.9 0 0.0 0.0–0.5 0 0.0 0.0–0.3 1 0.4 0.0–2.5
  1. 1 Children may have more than one limb deformity. IOTF – International Obesity Task Force