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Table 1 Patient demographics and baseline clinical characteristics

From: Percutaneous periarticular multi-drug injection at one day after total knee arthroplasty as a component of multimodal pain management: a randomized control trial

Variable Additional periarticular injection (22 patients) No additional injection (21 patients) P-value
Age, years 72 ± 7 76 ± 8 0.12*
Sex (Female/Male) 19/3 15/6 0.28†
Side (Right/Left) 10/12 12/9 0.55†
Height, cm 153 ± 10 152 ± 7 0.69*
Weight, kg 61.3 ± 9.0 60.6 ± 10.6 0.82*
Body mass index, kg/m2 26.4 ± 4.1 26.3 ± 3.7 0.92*
Diagnosis (Osteoarthritis/Avascular necrosis) 19/3 16/5 0.46†
History of diabetes mellitus (yes/no) 4/18 3/18 >  0.99†
Preoperative visual analog scale at rest, mm 35 ± 32 40 ± 27 0.61*
Preoperative visual analog scale during activity, mm 39 ± 22 37 ± 22 0.85*
Preoperative flexion angle, degree 127 ± 17 120 ± 18 0.26*
Preoperative extension angle, degree − 9 ± 9 −9 ± 8 0.99*
Duration of surgery, min 84 ± 10 86 ± 15 0.53*
  1. Results are expressed as means ± standard deviation, unless stated otherwise
  2. *P-values were determined with Student’s t test
  3. P-values were determined with Fisher’s exact test