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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Effects of mobilisation with movement (MWM) on anatomical and clinical characteristics of chronic ankle instability: a randomised controlled trial protocol

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
• A history of at least one significant ankle sprain;
- Initial sprain must have occurred at least 12 months prior to study enrolment
- Was associated with inflammatory symptoms
- Created at least one interrupted day of desired physical activity
- The most recent injury must have occurred more than 3 months prior to study enrolment
• A history of previous surgeries to the musculoskeletal structures (i.e., bones, joint structures, nerves) in either lower extremity
• A history of a fracture in either lower extremity requiring realignment
• Acute injury to musculoskeletal structures of other joints of the lower extremity in the previous 3 months that impacted joint integrity and function (i.e., sprains, fractures), resulting in at least one interrupted day of desired physical activity
• Have conditions for which manual therapy is generally contraindicated (such as the presence of a tumour, fracture, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, prolonged history of steroid use, or severe vascular disease)
• A history of the previously injured ankle joint ‘giving way’ and/or recurrent sprain and/or ‘feelings of instability’
- Participants should report at least two episodes of giving way in the 12 months prior to study enrolment
• Have conditions for which radiological imaging is contraindicated (e.g., pregnancy)
• Self-reported ankle instability should be confirmed with the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) (≤24) • Have conditions for which taping is contraindicated (e.g., allergy to strapping tape)
• General self-reported foot and ankle function questionnaire minimum score (Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM): activities of daily living (ADL) subscale < 90%, sport subscale < 80%) • Receiving concurrent treatment
- The most recent treatment for the ankle condition should have been received at least a week prior to study enrolment
  • Inability to read English